Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men

The Lipids and Arteriosclerosis Unit, Reina Sofía University Hospital, University of Córdoba, CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN), Avenida Menéndez Pidal s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain.
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 09/2008; 204(2):e70-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.09.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period.
To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects.
20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, <30% fat (8% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)). After 12-h fast, volunteers were given a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets-butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA).
The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.).
Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

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Available from: Juan A Paniagua, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "This difference was also observed in the feline red blood cells as the erythrocytic MUFA concentration was higher when cats were fed the HFn-6 diet. In humans, MUFA-enriched diets are thought to offset pro-inflammatory effects of high fat diets [38-40]. So far, data on the anti-inflammatory effect of MUFA are not available in cats, and as the diets used in this first study differed in many aspects, more research is warranted to investigate the potential inflammatory effects of each dietary lipid component separately to eliminate interfering factors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Oxidative stress and inflammation can be altered by dietary factors in various species. However, little data are available in true carnivorous species such as domestic cats. As numerous anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative additives become available and might be of use in cats with chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases, the current study aimed to develop a model of diet-induced inflammation by use of two opposite diets. It was hypothesized that a high fat diet enhanced in n-6 PUFA and with lower concentrations of antioxidants would evoke inflammation and oxidative stress in domestic cats. Results Sixteen healthy adult cats were allocated to two groups. One group received a moderate fat diet, containing pork lard and salmon oil (AA:(EPA + DHA) ratio 0.19) (MFn-3), while the other group was fed a high fat diet, containing pork lard and chicken fat (AA:(EPA + DHA) ratio 2.06) (HFn-6) for 12 weeks. Prior to and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after starting the testing period, blood samples were collected. Erythrocytic fatty acid profile showed clear alterations in accordance to the dietary fatty acid profile. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was higher when fed MFn-3 compared to the HFn-6, suggesting augmented oxidative stress. This was associated with a reduced serum vitamin E status, as serum α-tocopherol concentrations were lower with MFn-3, even with higher dietary levels of vitamin E. Serum cytokine and serum amyloid A concentrations were not influenced by diet. Conclusion These results point towards a resistance of cats to develop dietary fat-induced inflammation, but also suggest a high susceptibility to oxidative stress when fed a fish oil-supplemented diet even with moderate fat level and additional vitamin E.
    BMC Veterinary Research 05/2014; 10(1):104. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-104 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "An aqueous ethanol extract of walnut kernels showed superoxide dismutase type activity, radical scavenging effect against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) [8], and inhibition of azobisaminopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced LDL oxidation [21]. The acute consumption of walnuts has been associated with postmeal enhancement of antioxidant capacity [22], increased plasma FRAP activity [23], and inhibited inflammatory responses [24]. However, the bioavailability and role of walnut phenolics in these effects has not been fully determined. "
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma gamma-tocopherol but not for alpha-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC0-5h) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial gamma-tocopherol and catechins and attenuated some measures of oxidative stress.
    Nutrition Journal 01/2014; 13(1):4. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-4 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "MUFAs also appear to be anti-inflammatory as several studies [124] [125], but not all [118], have reported an inverse relationship between MUFA levels and inflammatory markers. Stronger evidence for this inverse relationship is found specifically between olive oil consumption, which contains high levels of MUFAs, and systemic inflammatory markers [126] "
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    ABSTRACT: Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF- α , CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation.
    The Scientific World Journal 11/2013; 2013(15):752071. DOI:10.1155/2013/752071 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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