Long-range enhancer differentially regulated by c-Jun and JunD controls peptidylarginine deiminase-3 gene in keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT Long-range cis elements are critical regulators of transcription, particularly for clustered paralogous genes. Such are the five PADI genes in 1p35-36 encoding peptidylarginine deiminases, which catalyze deimination, a Ca2+-dependent post-translational modification. Deimination has been implicated in the pathophysiology of severe human diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The PADI genes present different expression patterns. PADI1-3 are expressed in the epidermis, with increased expression levels in the most differentiated keratinocytes. Previous studies on PADI proximal promoters failed to explain such specificity of expression. We identified a conserved intergenic sequence in the PADI locus (IG1), which may play a role in PADI transcriptional regulation. In this work, we identified two DNase I.hypersensitive sites located in IG1, PAD intergenic enhancer segment 1 (PIE-S1) and PIE-S2, which act in synergy as a bipartite enhancer of the PADI3 and probably PADI1 promoters in normal human epidermal keratinocytes differentiated by a high-calcium-containing medium (1.5 mM). PIE-S1 and PIE-S2 present all the hallmarks of transcriptional enhancers: orientation-independence, copy-number dependence and cell-type specificity. PIE-S1 and PIE-S2 comprise conserved putative binding sites for MIBP1/RFX1 and activator protein 1, respectively. Deletion mutant screening revealed that these sites are crucial for the enhancer activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays evidenced differential binding of JunD or c-Jun on the activator protein 1 site depending on the cell differentiation state. Our results reveal the molecular bases of the expression specificity of PADI1 and PADI3 during keratinocyte differentiation through a long-range enhancer and support a model of PADI gene regulation depending on c-Jun-JunD competition.
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ABSTRACT: Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (59 K)Download as PowerPoint slideBiochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 01/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline residues. In human epidermis, where filaggrin is the main deiminated protein, three PADs are detected with specific patterns of expression depending on the keratinocyte (KC) differentiation state. Previous characterizations of the PAD-encoding gene promoters have shown that proximal regulation alone is not sufficient to explain this specificity of expression. In this work, we describe an evolutionarily highly conserved nucleotide segment located in the first intron of the PAD1 gene (PADI1). Luciferase reporter assays showed that it enhances the activity of the PADI1 promoter, in a calcium- and orientation-independent manner. Mutation of a putative NF-κB cis-element markedly reduced its enhancer activity, which also confirmed its potential regulatory function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays evidenced the binding of both p65 and p50 NF-κB subunits to the cis-element, and RNA interference inhibition assays confirmed that NF-κB contributes to the PADI1 transcriptional control. Furthermore, the intronic enhancer and promoter of PADI1 potentially interact through chromatin looping, as indicated by chromosome conformation capture assays. Our findings provide evidence that an NF-κB-mediated signaling pathway is involved in PADI1 regulation in human epidermal KCs.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 11/2010; 130(11):2543-52. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the expression of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) in different populations of sensory neurones are associated with the progression of chronic inflammatory disease. Thus, understanding the genomic and cellular mechanisms driving the expression of the TAC1 gene, which encodes SP, in sensory neurones is essential to understanding its role in inflammatory disease. We used a novel combination of computational genomics, primary-cell culture and mouse transgenics to determine the genomic and cellular mechanisms that control the expression of TAC1 in sensory neurones. Intriguingly, we demonstrated that the promoter of the TAC1 gene must act in synergy with a remote enhancer, identified using comparative genomics, to respond to MAPK signalling that modulates the expression of TAC1 in sensory neurones. We also reveal that noxious stimulation of sensory neurones triggers this synergy in larger diameter sensory neurones--an expression of SP associated with hyperalgesia. This noxious stimulation of TAC1 enhancer-promotor synergy could be strongly blocked by antagonism of the MEK pathway. This study provides a unique insight into the role of long-range enhancer-promoter synergy and selectivity in the tissue-specific response of promoters to specific signal transduction pathways and suggests a possible new avenue for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies.Neurosignals 01/2010; 18(3):173-85. · 2.56 Impact Factor