Wing-Body Aerodynamic Interaction

Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics (Impact Factor: 12.6). 11/2003; 4:431-472. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.fl.04.010172.002243
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous measurements of the velocity field around and the drag force on a circular cylinder placed laterally in an otherwise uniform water flow were made by means of a laser Doppler velocimeter and strain gauges, respectively. When double rows of holes were made across the diameter of a hollow circular cylinder, remarkable drag reduction was found for a fairly wide range of attack angles. It amounts to as much as 40% in comparison to a cylinder with a smooth surface in the tested Reynolds number range of (5–9) × 103.
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    ABSTRACT: The catalytic cracking of methylcyclohexane over an industrial FCC catalyst(containing Y-zeolite) has been studied in the Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor. High selectivities towards toluene were observed (Sto1≈70 %). The unusual product distribution originates from a predominant protolytic cracking that is favored by the low pressures and high concentration of acid sites applied in the TAP reactor. The formation of the other cracking products (benzene and smaller paraffins and olefins) is well accounted for by the relative stability of the secondary and tertiary carbenium ions. The catalytic cracking of methylcyclohexane can be adequately modeled by a reaction scheme by which the secondary and tertiary carbenium ions are formed in parallel. The activation energies for the formation of toluene and benzene are 144 kJ mol−1 and 220 kJ mol−1 respectively. This is in line with thermodynamic considerations concerning the stability of carbenium ions.
    Studies in surface science and catalysis 01/2001; 133:341-348.