Article

# Energetics of Pollination

11/2003; 6:139-170. DOI:10.1146/annurev.es.06.110175.001035
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• ##### Article: A review of the energetics of pollination biology.
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ABSTRACT: Pollination biology is often associated with mutualistic interactions between plants and their animal pollen vectors, with energy rewards as the foundation for co-evolution. Energy is supplied as food (often nectar from flowers) or as heat (in sun-tracking or thermogenic plants). The requirements of pollinators for these resources depend on many factors, including the costs of living, locomotion, thermoregulation and behaviour, all of which are influenced by body size. These requirements are modified by the availability of energy offered by plants and environmental conditions. Endothermic insects, birds and bats are very effective, because they move faster and are more independent of environmental temperatures, than are ectothermic insects, but they are energetically costly for the plant. The body size of endothermic pollinators appears to be influenced by opposing requirements of the animals and plants. Large body size is advantageous for endotherms to retain heat. However, plants select for small body size of endotherms, as energy costs of larger size are not matched by increases in flight speed. If high energy costs of endothermy cannot be met, birds and mammals employ daily torpor, and large insects reduce the frequency of facultative endothermy. Energy uptake can be limited by the time required to absorb the energy or eliminate the excess water that comes with it. It can also be influenced by variations in climate that determine temperature and flowering season.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B 05/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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##### Article: Foraging distance in Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
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ABSTRACT: A major determinant of bumblebees pollination efficiency is the distance of pollen dispersal, which depends on the foraging distance of workers. We employ a transect setting, controlling for both forage and nest location, to assess the foraging distance of Bombus terrestris workers and the influence of environmental factors on foraging frequency over distance. The mean foraging distance of B. terrestris workers was 267.2 m $\pm$ 180.3 m (max. 800 m). Nearly 40% of the workers foraged within 100 m around the nest. B. terrestris workers have thus rather moderate foraging ranges if rewarding forage is available within vicinity of the nests. We found the spatial distribution and the quality of forage plots to be the major determinants for the bees foraging decision-making, explaining over 80% of the foraging frequency. This low foraging range has implications for using B. terrestris colonies as pollinators in agriculture.
Apidologie 07/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
• ##### Article: Optimizing size thresholds in a plant-pollinator interaction web: towards a mechanistic understanding of ecological networks.
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ABSTRACT: Using functional traits together with abundance effects strengthens the prediction of interactions between pairs of species in ecological networks. Insights into the way species interact as well as prediction accuracy can be gained when thresholds for trait value combinations that make interactions possible are optimized through model selection. I present novel data of two subalpine plant-pollinator communities and build several stochastic models integrating flower abundance and morphological threshold rules that allow or restrict interactions between species. The number of correctly predicted interactions was highest when thresholds were set so that the insect's proboscis was not shorter than the nectar-holder depth minus 1-1.6 mm, and not wider than the nectar-holder width minus 0.5 mm. In comparison with models based solely on plant abundance effects, the model incorporating optimized size thresholds better predicted the distribution of the trait differences between plants and insects. This indicates that a mechanistic approach of interaction webs based on optimized size thresholds provides valuable information on community structure. The possible implications for community functioning are discussed.
Oecologia 03/2012; 170(1):233-42. · 3.01 Impact Factor