Bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years old
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To quantify and describe non-fatal, unintentional bathroom injuries among children less than 15 years of age treated in US hospital emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: This study used 2008 data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. We examined unintentional non-fatal bathroom injuries in any setting (eg, home, school or public place) among children less than 15 years of age and identified types of injuries, major locations within the bathroom and precipitating events. RESULTS: Based on 1099 cases, an estimated 51 132 non-fatal bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years of age were treated in US EDs in 2008. Most injuries (73.8%) were caused by falls. The highest rate was for injuries that occurred in or around the shower or bathtub (65.9 per 100 000). Children less than 15 years of age sustained the greatest number of injuries and had the highest injury rate (151 per 100 000 (95% CI 108.7 to 193.3)), while children 10-14 years of age had the lowest rate (28.7 (95% CI 20.6 to 36.8)). The rates differed significantly by age group (p<0.001). A majority of the patients (96.9%) were treated in the ED and released. CONCLUSIONS: Most bathroom injuries in children occurred while they were showering or bathing and were caused by falling or hitting an object. Such injuries might be reduced by improving caregiver supervision for younger children. For older children, a combination of bathroom safety education and environmental modifications, such as installing grab bars inside and outside the shower or tub, may reduce bathroom injuries.
Article: Housing and child health[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children will spend a considerable amount of time at home, and so housing will have an impact on their health and development. There is now a growing bank of evidence on the negative affects associated with unhealthy housing situations. This review looks at some of the most serious threats and the related effects on child health. In particular it looks at crowding, frequent moves, housing insecurity, cold homes (and fuel poverty), dampness and mould growth, and fall hazards. For each of these the causes of the problem are discussed before reviewing the related health outcomes. Finally, it is suggested that the housing and health sectors should co-operate, and that actions to improve unsatisfactory housing conditions should be seen as interventions for the benefits of patients.Paediatrics and Child Health 03/2014; 24(3):115–117. DOI:10.1016/j.paed.2013.08.009