Article

Infusion of haplo-identical killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand mismatched NK cells for relapsed myeloma in the setting of autologous stem cell transplantation.

Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.
British Journal of Haematology (Impact Factor: 4.94). 11/2008; 143(5):641-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07340.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatched natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in achieving durable remission after haplo-identical transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia. We investigated the feasibility of transfusing haplo-identical, T-cell depleted, KIR-ligand mismatched NK cells, after conditioning therapy with melphalan and fludarabine, to patients with advanced multiple myeloma (MM) followed by delayed rescue with autologous stem cells. No graft-versus-host disease or failure of autologous stem cells to engraft was observed. There was significant variation in the number of allo-reactive NK cells transfused. However, all NK products containing allo-reactive NK cells killed the NK cell target K562, the MM cell line U266, and recipient MM cells when available. Post NK cell infusion there was a rise in endogenous interleukin-15 accompanied by increasing donor chimaerism. Donor chimaerism was eventually lost, which correlated with the emergence of potent host anti-donor responses indicating that the immunosuppressive properties of the conditioning regimen require further optimization. Further, blocking of inhibitory KIR-ligands with anti-human leucocyte antigen antibody substantially enhanced killing of MM cells thus highlighting the potential for modulating NK/MM cell interaction. Encouragingly, 50% of patients achieved (near) complete remission. These data set the stage for future studies of KIR-ligand mismatched NK cell therapy in the autologous setting.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
65 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy residing within the bone marrow (BM). We aim to develop allogeneic Natural Killer (NK) cell immunotherapy for MM. As the BM contains hypoxic regions and the tumor environment can be immunosuppressive, we hypothesized that hypoxia inhibits NK cell anti-MM responses. NK cells were isolated from healthy donors by negative selection and NK cell function and phenotype were examined at oxygen levels representative of hypoxic BM using flowcytometry. Additionally, NK cells were activated with IL-2 to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity under hypoxia. Hypoxia reduced NK cell killing of MM cell lines in an oxygen dependent manner. Under hypoxia, NK cells maintained their ability to degranulate in response to target cells, though, the percentage of degranulating NK cells was slightly reduced. Adaptation of NK- or MM cells to hypoxia was not required, hence, the oxygen level during the killing process was critical. Hypoxia did not alter surface expression of NK cell ligands (HLA-ABC, -E, MICA/B and ULBP1-2) and receptors (KIR, NKG2A/C, DNAM-1, NCRs and 2B4). It did, however, decrease expression of the activating NKG2D receptor and of intracellular perforin and granzyme B. Pre-activation of NK cells by IL-2 abrogated the detrimental effects of hypoxia and increased NKG2D expression. This emphasized that activated NK cells can mediate anti-MM effects, even under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia abolishes the killing potential of NK cells against multiple myeloma, which can be restored by IL-2 activation. Our study shows that for the design of NK cell-based immunotherapy it is necessary to study biological interactions between NK- and tumor cells also under hypoxic conditions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64835. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing knowledge of the complexities of the immune system have led to a better understanding of how it can be harnessed for the purpose of anticancer therapy. Moreover, recent success with immunotherapies for solid tumors, combined with novel therapeutic strategies against myeloma, heighten excitement at the prospect of improving clinical outcomes for myeloma by improving antitumor immunity. Increased understanding of myeloma tumor-associated antigens, availability of more potent vaccines, expanded immune-modulating therapies, development of agents that block immune-suppressive pathways, increased sophistication of adoptive cell therapy techniques and capitalization upon standard autologous transplant are all important standalone or combination strategies that might ultimately improve prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma.
    Immunotherapy 09/2013; 5(9):1005-20. · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allotransplantation of natural killer (NK) cells has been shown to be a key factor in the control and cure of at least some hematologic diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia or pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia. These results support the idea that stimulation of NK cells could be an important therapeutic tool in many diseases, and several such approaches are now in clinical trials, sometimes with conflicting results. In parallel, recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing NK-cell maturation and activity show that NK-cell effector functions are controlled by complex mechanisms that must be taken into account for optimal design of therapeutic protocols. We review here innovative protocols based on allotransplantation, use of NK-cell therapies, and use of newly available drug candidates targeting NK-cell receptors, in the light of fundamental new data on NK-cell biology.
    F1000 Medicine Reports 01/2011; 3:9.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
6 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014