The Application of Comorbidity Indices to Predict Early Postoperative Outcomes After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: A Nationwide Comparative Analysis of Over 70,000 Cases
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) often have substantial comorbidities, which must be taken into account to appropriately assess expected postoperative outcomes. The Charlson/Deyo and Elixhauser indices are widely used comorbidity measures, both of which also have revised algorithms based on enhanced ICD-9-CM coding. It is currently unclear which of the existing comorbidity measures best predicts early postoperative outcomes following LRYGB. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, patients 18 years or older undergoing LRYGB for obesity between 2001 and 2008 were identified. Comorbidities were assessed according to the original and enhanced Charlson/Deyo and Elixhauser indices. Using multivariate logistic regression, the following early postoperative outcomes were assessed: overall postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and conversion to open surgery. Model performance for the four comorbidity indices was assessed and compared using C-statistics and the Akaike's information criterion (AIC). RESULTS: A total of 70,287 patients were included. Mean age was 43.1 years (SD, 10.8), 81.6 % were female and 60.3 % were White. Both the original and enhanced Elixhauser indices modestly outperformed the Charlson/Deyo in predicting the surgical outcomes. All four models had similar C-statistics, but the original Elixhauser index was associated with the smallest AIC for all of the surgical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The original Elixhauser index is the best predictor of early postoperative outcomes in our cohort of patients undergoing LRYGB. However, differences between the Charlson/Deyo and Elixhauser indices are modest, and each of these indices provides clinically relevant insight for predicting early postoperative outcomes in this high-risk patient population.
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ABSTRACT: International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes capture comorbidities that can be used to risk adjust nonrandom patient groups. We explored the accuracy of capturing comorbidities associated with one risk adjustment method, the Elixhauser Comorbidity Measure (ECM), in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at one Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. We explored potential reasons for the differences found between the original codes assigned and conditions found through retrospective review. This descriptive, retrospective study used a cohort of patients discharged with a principal diagnosis coded as CHF from one VA medical center in 2003. One admission per patient was used in the study; with multiple admissions, only the first admission was analyzed. We compared the assignment of original codes assigned to conditions found in a retrospective, manual review of the medical record conducted by an investigator with coding expertise as well as by physicians. Members of the team experienced with assigning ICD-9-CM codes and VA coding processes developed themes related to systemic reasons why chronic conditions were not coded in VA records using applied thematic techniques. In the 181-patient cohort, 388 comorbid conditions were identified; 305 of these were chronic conditions, originally coded at the time of discharge with an average of 1.7 comorbidities related to the ECM per patient. The review by an investigator with coding expertise revealed a total of 937 comorbidities resulting in 618 chronic comorbid conditions with an average of 3.4 per patient; physician review found 872 total comorbidities with 562 chronic conditions (average 3.1 per patient). The agreement between the original and the retrospective coding review was 88 percent. The kappa statistic for the original and the retrospective coding review was 0.375 with a 95 percent confidence interval (CI) of 0.352 to 0.398. The kappa statistic for the retrospective coding review and physician review was 0.849 (CI, 0.823-0.875). The kappa statistic for the original coding and the physician review was 0.340 (CI, 0.316-0.364). Several systemic factors were identified, including familiarity with inpatient VA and non-VA guidelines, the quality of documentation, and operational requirements to complete the coding process within short time frames and to identify the reasons for movement within a given facility. Comorbidities within the ECM representing chronic conditions were significantly underrepresented in the original code assignment. Contributing factors potentially include prioritization of codes related to acute conditions over chronic conditions; coders' professional training, educational level, and experience; and the limited number of codes allowed in initial coding software. This study highlights the need to evaluate systemic causes of underrepresentation of chronic conditions to improve the accuracy of risk adjustment used for health services research, resource allocation, and performance measurement.Perspectives in health information management / AHIMA, American Health Information Management Association 01/2013; 10:1b.
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ABSTRACT: The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management. The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review. Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14 %-2.2 % and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5 % (p = 0.002) .Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p = value 0.01). Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation.World Journal of Emergency Surgery 12/2013; 8(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1749-7922-8-58 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We used population based data to measure the rates and risk factors of open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy in the United States. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 87,415 patients in the NCDB who underwent minimally invasive radical prostatectomy between 2010 and 2011. We compared surgical outcomes and treatment facility characteristics between converted and nonconverted cases. Multivariable analysis was done to evaluate conversion risk factors. There were 82,338 robot-assisted (94%) and 5,077 laparoscopic (6%) radical prostatectomies, and 1,080 conversions (1.2%). Fewer robot-assisted cases were converted than laparoscopic cases (0.9% vs 6.5%, p <0.001). The median yearly treatment facility volume of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy was 32 (IQR 10-72). Patients who underwent conversion were more likely to be rehospitalized within 30 days (4.4% vs 2.7%, p = 0.002) and have a postoperative hospital stay of greater than 2 days (40.4% vs 15.1%, p <0.001) than those without conversion. Facilities in the lowest quartile of the yearly volume of the minimally invasive procedure represented 3.8% of minimally invasive radical prostatectomies but accounted for 22.9% of conversions. The second, third and fourth quartiles of yearly treatment facility minimally invasive volume predicted a lower likelihood of conversion compared to the first quartile (each p <0.001). Facility type (eg academic or community) did not predict conversion. Black race (vs white OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.24-1.86, p <0.001) and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.79-5.78, p <0.001) predicted higher odds of conversion. Open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is a rare event. However, it is significantly more likely for pure laparoscopic surgery, in black men and at low volume facilities. Facility type did not affect conversion rates. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The Journal of Urology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.113 · 3.75 Impact Factor