The comparative morphology of idiopathic ankle osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and the leading cause of chronic disability in the U.S. However, symptomatic osteoarthritis at the ankle occurs nine times less frequently than at the knee and hip, even though the ankle experiences greater pressure and is the most commonly injured joint in the human body. This study sought to quantify the shape and coverage of the talar and tibial articular surfaces by comparing the three-dimensional morphology of the ankle in patients with ankle osteoarthritis and in those without arthritis, including a subset of different foot shapes.
We created three-dimensional models of the joint surfaces of ankles with and without arthritis. We fit cylinders to the joint surfaces, and measured the radius of the tibial and talar articular surfaces, the tibial coverage angle of the talus, and the degree of joint skew. We hypothesized that these measurements would be different between those with and without ankle osteoarthritis and among foot types. We evaluated a total of 108 limbs.
The mean tibial and talar radii were significantly higher and the mean coverage angle was significantly lower in feet with ankle osteoarthritis than in all other foot categories. The mean coronal skew in limbs with ankle osteoarthritis was significantly higher than in the neutral and flatfoot groups. The high arched feet had several significantly different skew angles from other foot types. No significant differences in joint morphology measures between neutrally aligned feet and flatfeet were found.
Ankles with osteoarthritis had larger tibial and talar radii, a smaller coverage angle, and larger skew angles than ankles without osteoarthritis. Together, these findings suggest a flatter ankle joint with less stability, depth, and containment and reduced articular constraint and support.
These findings offer an objective standard that supports the principle that ankle osteoarthritis pathology is related to loss of ankle joint containment.
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ABSTRACT: This study explored three dimensional (3D) talonavicular joint (TNJ) coverage/orientation and bone morphology to reveal parameters that could classify and identify predispositions to cavus and planus feet. 3D models of 65 feet from 40 subjects were generated from computed tomography images classified as pes cavus, neutrally aligned, or asymptomatic/symptomatic pes planus. We calculated the talar and navicular overlap (TNJ coverage). We also measured orientation of the navicular, morphological parameters of the talus and navicular, and angular position of the talar head to body. Pes cavus showed significantly less talonavicular coverage (58 ± 2% talus and 86 ± 2% navicular) compared to asymptomatic pes planus (63 ± 2% and 95 ± 2%) and neutrally aligned feet (98 ± 2% navicular), and significantly more navicular dorsiflexion and adduction relative to the talus (p < 0.0083). The talar head in cavus feet was inverted relative to the body compared to planus feet (p < 0.0083). For symptomatic pes planus, significant abduction was measured for the navicular relative to the talus and the talar head was plantar flexed relative to the body (p < 0.0083). The talar head in planus feet was everted relative to the body compared to neutrally aligned feet. Both intrinsic (bone morphology) and extrinsic (bone position) differences exist in groups of feet described as cavus and planus. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop ResJournal of Orthopaedic Research 07/2014; 32(7). DOI:10.1002/jor.22612 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Standard values that describe the morphology of the subtalar (ST) joint have previously been obtained from cadaveric studies or by using conventional unloaded radiographs. It is known that these parameters differ significantly from those measured in vivo and in loaded images, limiting the diagnostic value of the previously published morphological parameters in the literature. However, the morphology of the ST joint clearly affects its function. The objective of this study was to determine the morphology of the posterior facet of the ST joint using loaded computed tomography (CT) images and to describe the different configurations found in asymptomatic patients.Foot & Ankle International 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/1071100714540890 · 1.63 Impact Factor