Effects of Non-Weight-Bearing on the Immature Femoral Head Following Ischemic Osteonecrosis An Experimental Investigation in Immature Pigs
ABSTRACT Local non-weight-bearing as a treatment for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease remains controversial since a clear scientific basis for this treatment is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of non-weight-bearing on decreasing the femoral head deformity following ischemic osteonecrosis and to investigate its biological effects.
Unilateral femoral head ischemia was induced in sixteen piglets by placing a ligature around the femoral neck and transecting the ligamentum teres. Eight animals received a hind-limb amputation to prevent weight-bearing on the ischemic side (NWB group). The remaining eight piglets were allowed to bear weight as tolerated (WB group). The contralateral femoral heads of the WB group were used as normal controls. All animals were killed at eight weeks after induction of ischemia, when a deformity is expected in this model. Radiographic, microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT), and histomorphometric assessments were performed.
Radiographic and micro-CT assessments showed significantly greater flattening of the infarcted epiphysis in the WB group compared with the NWB group. The mean epiphyseal quotient (ratio of femoral head height to diameter) was significantly lower in the WB group (0.29 ± 0.06) compared with the NWB group (0.41 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Histomorphometric analyses showed that the mean percentage revascularization of the infarcted epiphysis was significantly greater in the NWB group (95% ± 14%) compared with the WB group (34% ± 33%, p < 0.0004), suggesting that revascularization was more rapid in the NWB group. Both histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses of trabecular bone parameters showed significantly decreased bone volume and decreased trabecular number in the infarcted epiphysis of the NWB group compared with the WB group (p < 0.05).
Local non-weight-bearing decreased the deformity following ischemic femoral head osteonecrosis and increased the rates of revascularization and resorption of the infarcted epiphysis.
Local non-weight-bearing was mechanically protective but biologically suboptimal following ischemic osteonecrosis since it increased the imbalance of bone resorption and formation.
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ABSTRACT: Non-weight-bearing decreases the femoral head deformity but increases bone resorption without increasing bone formation in an experimental animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. We sought to determine if local administration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with or without bisphosphonate can increase the bone formation during the non-weight-bearing treatment in the large animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2014; 96(18):1515-24. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.M.01361 · 4.31 Impact Factor
Article: What's New in Pediatric OrthopaedicsThe Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 02/2014; 96(4):345-350. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.M.01367 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.Calcified Tissue International 02/2015; 96(4). DOI:10.1007/s00223-015-9959-7 · 2.75 Impact Factor