Using Exome Sequencing to Reveal Mutations in TREM2 Presenting as a Frontotemporal Dementia-like Syndrome Without Bone Involvement
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify new genes and risk factors associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Several genes and loci have been associated with different forms of FTD, but a large number of families with dementia do not harbor mutations in these genes. DESIGN Whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome genotyping were performed in all patients. Genetic variants obtained from whole-exome sequencing were integrated with the data obtained from whole-genome genotyping. SETTING Database of the Behavioral Neurology Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Neurology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey. PATIENTS Forty-four Turkish patients with an FTD-like clinical diagnosis were included in the study. Relatives were screened when appropriate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2). RESULTS In 3 probands with FTD-like disease, we identified different homozygous mutations in TREM2 that had previously been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL). None of these 3 patients had a typical clinical presentation of PLOSL: they presented with behavioral change and subsequent cognitive impairment and motor features but without any bone cysts or bone-associated phenotypes. Imaging showed white matter abnormalities as well as frontal atrophy in all 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that TREM2 is responsible for an unexpectedly high number of dementia cases in our cohort, suggesting that this gene should be taken into account when mutations in other dementia genes are excluded. Even for complex syndromes such as dementia, exome sequencing has proven to be a rapid and cost-effective tool to identify genetic mutations, allowing for the association of clinical phenotypes with unexpected molecular underpinnings.
SourceAvailable from: Caihong Zhu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional variants of the innate immune cell surface receptor TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) were identified as major genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Here we assessed a possible involvement of TREM2 in prion disease. We report that TREM2 expression by microglia is significantly up-regulated upon prion infection. However, depletion of TREM2 did not affect disease incubation time and survival after intracerebral prion infection. Interestingly, markers of microglial activation were attenuated in prion-infected TREM2(-/-) mice, suggesting an involvement of TREM2 in prion-induced microglial activation. Further phenotype profiling of microglia revealed that TREM2 deficiency did not change microglial phenotypes. We conclude that TREM2 is involved in prion-induced microglial activation but does not noticeably modulate the pathogenesis of experimental prion infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neurobiology of aging 02/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.019 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) confer high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the cell types and mechanisms underlying TREM2's involvement in neurodegeneration remain to be established. Here, we report that TREM2 is up-regulated on myeloid cells surrounding amyloid deposits in AD mouse models and human AD tissue. TREM2 was detected on CD45(hi)Ly6C(+) myeloid cells, but not on P2RY12(+) parenchymal microglia. In AD mice deficient for TREM2, the CD45(hi)Ly6C(+) macrophages are virtually eliminated, resulting in reduced inflammation and ameliorated amyloid and tau pathologies. These data suggest a functionally important role for TREM2(+) macrophages in AD pathogenesis and an unexpected, detrimental role of TREM2 in AD pathology. These findings have direct implications for future development of TREM2-targeted therapeutics. © 2015 Jay et al.Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2015; 212(3). DOI:10.1084/jem.20142322 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TREM2 encodes for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and has rare, coding variants that associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in Caucasians of European and North-American origin. This study evaluated the role of TREM2 in LOAD risk in African-American (AA) subjects. We performed exonic sequencing and validation in two independent cohorts of >800 subjects. We selected six coding variants (p.R47H, p.R62H, p.D87N, p.E151K, p.W191X, and p.L211P) for case-control analyses in a total of 906 LOAD cases vs. 2,487 controls. We identified significant LOAD risk association with p.L211P (p = 0.01, OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.05-1.54) and suggestive association with p.W191X (p = 0.08, OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 0.97-1.87). Conditional analysis suggests that p.L211P, which is in linkage disequilibrium with p.W191X, may be the stronger variant of the two, but does not rule out independent contribution of the latter. TREM2 p.L211P resides within the cytoplasmic domain and p.W191X is a stop-gain mutation within the shorter TREM-2V transcript. The coding variants within the extracellular domain of TREM2 previously shown to confer LOAD risk in Caucasians were extremely rare in our AA cohort and did not associate with LOAD risk. Our findings suggest that TREM2 coding variants also confer LOAD risk in AA, but implicate variants within different regions of the gene than those identified for Caucasian subjects. These results underscore the importance of investigating different ethnic populations for disease risk variant discovery, which may uncover allelic heterogeneity with potentially diverse mechanisms of action.Molecular Neurodegeneration 04/2015; 10(1):19. DOI:10.1186/s13024-015-0016-9 · 5.29 Impact Factor