Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident CVD
ABSTRACT Evidence for cardioprotective effects of lycopene is inconsistent. Studies of circulating lycopene generally report inverse associations with CVD risk, but studies based on lycopene intake do not. The failure of dietary studies to support the findings based on biomarkers may be due in part to misclassification of lycopene intakes. To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident outcomes were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models using logarithmically transformed lycopene intake adjusted for CVD risk factors and correlates of lycopene intake. HR were interpreted as the increased risk for a 2·7-fold difference in lycopene intake, a difference approximately equal to its interquartile range. Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 0·74, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence. The present study of lycopene intake and CVD provides supporting evidence for an inverse association between lycopene and CVD risk; however, additional research is needed to determine whether lycopene or other components of tomatoes, the major dietary source of lycopene, are responsible for the observed association.
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ABSTRACT: Lycopene (LYC) is the major tomato carotenoid and is the focus of substantial research. Phytoene (PE), a minor tomato carotenoid, is found in human blood and tissues in similar concentrations to LYC. To determine which metabolic differences underlie this phenomenon, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, n = 56) were fed control or tomato powder (TP)-containing diets (to establish steady-state serum and tissue carotenoid concentrations similar to tomato-fed humans) for 26 d. The TP-fed gerbils were then provided either a single, oral, cottonseed oil (CO) vehicle dose and tissues were collected at 6 h or they were provided unlabeled PE or LYC in CO and tissues were evaluated at 6, 12, or 24 h. In vehicle-dosed, TP-fed gerbils, LYC was the major carotenoid (≥55% carotenoids) in liver, spleen, testes, and the prostate-seminal vesicle complex, whereas PE was the major serum and adipose carotenoid (≥37% total carotenoid) and phytofluene was the major carotenoid (≥38%) in adrenals and lungs. PE dosing increased hepatic, splenic, and serum PE concentrations compared with vehicle dosing (P < 0.05) from 6 to 24 h, whereas LYC dosing increased only serum LYC at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle dosing. This suggested PE was more bioavailable and cleared more slowly than LYC. To precisely track absorptive and distributive differences, (14)C-PE or (14)C-LYC (n = 2/group) was provided to TP-fed gerbils. Bioavailability assessed by carcass (14)C-content was 23% for PE and 8% for LYC. Nearly every extra-hepatic tissue accumulated greater dose radioactivity after (14)C-PE than (14)C-LYC dosing. Thus, LYC and PE, which structurally differ only by saturation, pharmacokinetically differ in bioavailability, tissue deposition, and clearance.Journal of Nutrition 10/2013; 143(12). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.181461 · 4.23 Impact Factor
Article: Tomatoes cause under-arm odour[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Under arm odour [axillary odour AO, bromidrosis] is a deeply unpleasant problem that can affect a person's self confidence and esteem and reduce social interaction. It is generally managed by good hygiene along with antiperspirants and deodorants, but the axillary apocrine glands may need surgical removal in severe cases of odour. The odour comes from microbial conversion of the apocrine secretions into short chain fatty acids like isovaleric acid and volatile sulphur compounds like 3-sulphanylhexan-1-ol. These can be detected at a few parts per billion to parts per trillion by the human nose so an unhygienic state is soon apparent. Recently genetics have been found to play an important role too as people with the AA variant of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCC11, do not secrete preodour substrates for bacterial conversion, while those with GA or GG variants do. Hygiene and genetics, are an incomplete explanation though, because the longitudinal ALSPAC study found that there is a mismatch between patients' secretory status, as determined by genetics, and their use of deodorants. This suggests that other metabolic pathways or compounds contribute to the odour. In this paper I propose that under arm odour is commonly caused by terpenes excreted via the axillary apocrine glands. I also show that these come from terpene and carotenoid-rich dietary sources including lycopene, tomatoes, orange peel and the glandular trichomes of tomato plants. These observations suggest that the axillary apocrine glands are a prominent excretory route for terpenes. Considering the quantities eaten, tomatoes are likely to be the main source of dietary terpenes, and under arm odour in turn. This study also shows that lycopene is probably metabolised by β-carotene 9 10 monooxygenase which cleaves β-carotene eccentrically at the 9 10 or 9'10' position of the chain. Direct evidence of lycopene metabolism by β-carotene 9 10 monooxygenase has hitherto been lacking. The study of terpene and carotenoid metabolism can be greatly advanced by analysing the content of axillary gland excretions.Medical Hypotheses 02/2014; 82(5). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2014.02.001 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite dietary recommendations that have repeatedly underscored the importance of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, intakes worldwide are lower than recommended levels. Consequently, the diets of many individuals may be lacking in nutrients and phytonutrients typical of a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we estimated phytonutrient intakes by adults categorised by sex, level of fruit and vegetable consumption (��<��5 v. �����5 servings/d), and geographic diet cluster. Intakes of nine select phytonutrients were estimated from the 2002���4 World Health Survey fruit and vegetable servings intake data (n 198��637), the FAO supply utilisation accounts data, and phytonutrient concentration data obtained from the US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature. Percentage contributions to each phytonutrient intake from fruit and vegetable sources were also estimated. Estimated intakes of phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables varied across the thirteen geographic diet clusters, reflecting regional differences in both numbers and proportions of fruit and vegetable servings consumed, and the specific types of fruits and vegetables available in the diet. The mean phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming �����5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables were approximately 2- to 6-fold the mean phytonutrient intakes by adults with low fruit and vegetable consumption (��<��5 servings/d). In some cases, phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming �����5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables in one geographic diet cluster were lower than the intakes by adults reporting <��5 servings/d in another cluster. The findings from this assessment provide important information regarding the major dietary patterns of phytonutrient intakes across geographic diet clusters.British Journal Of Nutrition 08/2014; 112(6):1-15. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514001937 · 3.34 Impact Factor