Novel prognostic scoring system after surgery for klatskin tumor.
ABSTRACT Klatskin tumor is a rare hepatobiliary malignancy whose outcome and prognostic factors are not clearly documented. Between April 1998 and January 2007, 96 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent resection. Data were collected prospectively. Thirty-one variables were evaluated for prognostic significance. There were 40 trisectionectomies, 40 hemihepatectomies, five central hepatectomies, and 11 biliary hilar resections. Thirty-seven (n = 37) patients required vascular reconstruction. There were 68 R0, 26 R1, and two R2 resections. Age (P = 0.048), pT status (P = 0.046), R class (P = 0.034), and adjuvant chemoradiation (P = 0.045) showed predictive significance by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. A point scoring system was determined as follows: age younger than 62 years:age 62 years or older = 1:2 points; pT1:pT2 to 4 = 1:2 points; R0:R1/2 = 1:2 points; and chemoradiation yes:no = 1:2 points. The only model that reached statistical significance (P = 0.0332) described the following three groups: score 6 or less; score = 7; and score = 8. Median survival for score 6 or less, score = 7, and score = 8 was 26.5, 12, and 2.2 months, respectively (P = 0.032). The corresponding 1- and 3-year survival rates were 73 to 56 per cent, 52 to 38 per cent, and 17 to 0 per cent, respectively. We propose a scoring system predictive of long-term surgical outcome that could potentially improve patient selection for further postoperative oncologic treatment for Klatskin tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Liver surgery in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) is associated with high postoperative morbidity because the tumor typically causes biliary obstruction. Preoperative biliary drainage is used to create a safer environment prior to liver surgery, but biliary drainage may be harmful when severe drainage-related complications deteriorate the patients' condition or increase the risk of postoperative morbidity. Biliary drainage can cause cholangitis/cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hemorrhage, portal vein thrombosis, bowel wall perforation, or dehydration. Two methods of preoperative biliary drainage are mostly applied: endoscopic biliary drainage, which is currently used in most regional centers before referring patients for surgical treatment, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Both methods are associated with severe drainage-related complications, but two small retrospective series found a lower incidence in the number of preoperative complications after percutaneous drainage compared to endoscopic drainage (18-25% versus 38-60%, respectively). The present study randomizes patients with potentially resectable PHC and biliary obstruction between preoperative endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. The study is a multi-center trial with an "all-comers" design, randomizing patients between endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. All patients selected to potentially undergo a major liver resection for presumed PHC are eligible for inclusion in the study provided that the biliary system in the future liver remnant is obstructed (even if they underwent previous inadequate endoscopic drainage). Primary outcome measure is the total number of severe preoperative complications between randomization and exploratory laparotomy. The study is designed to detect superiority of percutaneous drainage: a provisional sample size of 106 patients is required to detect a relative decrease of 50% in the number of severe preoperative complications (alpha = 0.95; beta = 0.8). Interim analysis after inclusion of 53 patients (50%) will provide the definitive sample size. Secondary outcome measures encompass the success of biliary drainage, quality of life, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. The DRAINAGE trial is designed to identify a difference in the number of severe drainage-related complications after endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients selected to undergo a major liver resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Netherlands Trial Register [ NTR4243 , 11 October 2013].BMC Gastroenterology 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12876-015-0251-0 · 2.11 Impact Factor