Transcutaneous vaccines-current and emerging strategies
Vaccination, which is the major fundamental prophylaxis against illness and death from infectious disease, has greatly contributed to the global improvement of human health. However, the disadvantages of conventional injection systems hamper the delivery of vaccination technologies to developing countries. The imminent practice of easy-to-use vaccination methods is expected to overcome certain issues associated with injectable vaccinations. One innovative method is the transcutaneous immunization (TCI) system.
Two major strategies for TCI are discussed in this review. One is to promote antigen permeation of the skin barrier by patch systems or nanoparticles. The other is the delivery of antigens into the skin by electroporation and microneedles in order to physically overcome the skin barrier. Moreover, adjuvant development for TCI is discussed.
Many different approaches have been developed for TCI, which have the potential to be effective, easy-to-use and painless methods of vaccination. However, in practical terms, the guidelines concerning the manufacturing processes and clinical trial evaluation of the procedures have not kept pace with the development of these novel formulations. The accumulation of information regarding skin characteristics and the properties of TCI devices will help refine TCI system development guidelines and thus lead to the improvement of transcutaneous vaccination.
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ABSTRACT: Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2013; 7:945-952. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S44401 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcutaneous immunization is a potential and attractive alternative to conventional vaccination, due to the unique immunological characteristics of skin. Despite several studies on transcutaneous immunization using novel techniques, it has not been exploited to its full potential because of the complex barrier property of stratum corneum. There are several successful reports on transcutaneous delivery of vaccines by using different novel physical devices, but considering the potential problem of vaccination in developing countries, these novel physical techniques might not solve the problem of effective vaccination because of economic issues. Therefore, the research in the field of passive transcutaneous delivery of these vaccines could be more attractive and cost effective. This review mainly focuses on mechanism and adjuvants frequently used in transcutaneous immunization and several other passive techniques which have been investigated so far in the field of transcutaneous vaccine delivery.Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 12/2014; 24(3):271-276. DOI:10.1016/S1773-2247(14)50045-7 · 0.48 Impact Factor