Transcutaneous vaccines-current and emerging strategies

Osaka University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Biotechnology and Therapeutics , 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 , Japan.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery (Impact Factor: 4.84). 01/2013; 10(4). DOI: 10.1517/17425247.2013.760542
Source: PubMed


Vaccination, which is the major fundamental prophylaxis against illness and death from infectious disease, has greatly contributed to the global improvement of human health. However, the disadvantages of conventional injection systems hamper the delivery of vaccination technologies to developing countries. The imminent practice of easy-to-use vaccination methods is expected to overcome certain issues associated with injectable vaccinations. One innovative method is the transcutaneous immunization (TCI) system.

Areas covered:
Two major strategies for TCI are discussed in this review. One is to promote antigen permeation of the skin barrier by patch systems or nanoparticles. The other is the delivery of antigens into the skin by electroporation and microneedles in order to physically overcome the skin barrier. Moreover, adjuvant development for TCI is discussed.

Expert opinion:
Many different approaches have been developed for TCI, which have the potential to be effective, easy-to-use and painless methods of vaccination. However, in practical terms, the guidelines concerning the manufacturing processes and clinical trial evaluation of the procedures have not kept pace with the development of these novel formulations. The accumulation of information regarding skin characteristics and the properties of TCI devices will help refine TCI system development guidelines and thus lead to the improvement of transcutaneous vaccination.

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    ABSTRACT: Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation.
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    ABSTRACT: Transcutaneous immunization is a potential and attractive alternative to conventional vaccination, due to the unique immunological characteristics of skin. Despite several studies on transcutaneous immunization using novel techniques, it has not been exploited to its full potential because of the complex barrier property of stratum corneum. There are several successful reports on transcutaneous delivery of vaccines by using different novel physical devices, but considering the potential problem of vaccination in developing countries, these novel physical techniques might not solve the problem of effective vaccination because of economic issues. Therefore, the research in the field of passive transcutaneous delivery of these vaccines could be more attractive and cost effective. This review mainly focuses on mechanism and adjuvants frequently used in transcutaneous immunization and several other passive techniques which have been investigated so far in the field of transcutaneous vaccine delivery.
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and herpes simplex virus, type 2 (HSV-2) are the causative agents of three of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with more than 200. million new cases reported annually around the globe. Women carry a disproportionately higher burden of these infections and their disease sequelae. There are currently no viable effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine options available for these STIs. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made in last 3 decades that has increased advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis of, and immune responses against, these agents. Much of this information has come from animal studies that have modeled the infection and examined disease pathogenesis as well as immune responses. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the animal models for these infections and summarize studies that inform our current understanding of the pathogenesis and innate and adaptive immune responses against Chlamydia, N. gonorrhoeae, and HSV-2. We also summarize the progress that has been made toward vaccine development for each of these infections.
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