Adenovirus-mediated expression of spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyltransferase gene induces S-phase arrest in human colorectal cancer cells
ABSTRACT Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a key enzyme of polyamine catabolism. In a previous study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-SSAT, which can express human SSAT. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ad-SSAT on the growth and cell cycle of colorectal cancer cells. We found that Ad-SSAT increased the expression of SSAT and inhibited the growth of HT-29 and Lovo cells. The growth inhibition was caused by cell cycle arrest in the S phase. Furthermore, Ad-SSAT was shown to suppress the expression of cyclin A and nuclear factor E2F-1 in HT-29 and Lovo cells. The inhibitory effect of Ad-SSAT on cyclin A promoter activity was also observed in a reporter gene assay. Our results suggest that the expression of SSAT mediated by Ad-SSAT infection inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells and induces cell cycle arrest at the S phase, through a mechanism involving the suppression of cyclin A and E2F-1 expression.
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ABSTRACT: In addition to polyamine homoeostasis, it has become increasingly clear that polyamine catabolism can play a dominant role in drug response, apoptosis and the response to stressful stimuli, and contribute to the aetiology of several pathological states, including cancer. The highly inducible enzymes SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase) and SMO (spermine oxidase) and the generally constitutively expressed APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase) appear to play critical roles in many normal and disease processes. The dysregulation of polyamine catabolism frequently accompanies several disease states and suggests that such dysregulation may both provide useful insight into disease mechanism and provide unique druggable targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Each of these enzymes has the potential to alter polyamine homoeostasis in response to multiple cell signals and the two oxidases produce the reactive oxygen species H2O2 and aldehydes, each with the potential to produce pathological states. The activity of SSAT provides substrates for APAO or substrates for the polyamine exporter, thus reducing the intracellular polyamine concentration, the net effect of which depends on the magnitude and rate of any increase in SSAT. SSAT may also influence cellular metabolism via interaction with other proteins and by perturbing the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. The goal of the present review is to cover those aspects of polyamine catabolism that have an impact on disease aetiology or treatment and to provide a solid background in this ever more exciting aspect of polyamine biology.Biochemical Journal 09/2009; 421(3):323-38. DOI:10.1042/BJ20090598 · 4.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are essential polycations, intimately involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation. Although polyamines exert dynamic effects on the conformation of nucleic acids and macromolecular synthesis in vitro, their specific functions in vivo are poorly understood. We investigated the cellular function of polyamines by overexpression of a key catabolic enzyme, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) in mammalian cells. Transient cotransfection of HeLa cells with GFP and SAT1 vectors suppressed GFP protein expression without lowering its mRNA level, an indication that the block in GFP expression was not at transcription, but at translation. Fluorescence single-cell imaging also revealed specific inhibition of endogenous protein synthesis in the SAT1 overexpressing cells, without any inhibition of synthesis of DNA or RNA. Overexpression of SAT1 using a SAT1 adenovirus led to rapid depletion of cellular spermidine and spermine, total inhibition of protein synthesis, and growth arrest within 24 h. The SAT1 effect is most likely due to depletion of spermidine and spermine, because stable polyamine analogs that are not substrates for SAT1 restored GFP and endogenous protein synthesis. Loss of polysomes with increased 80S monosomes in the polyamine-depleted cells suggests a direct role for polyamines in translation initiation. Our data provide strong evidence for a primary function of polyamines, spermidine and spermine, in translation in mammalian cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; 110(in press). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1219002110 · 9.67 Impact Factor