Although injection drug use (IDU) and blood transfusions prior to 1992 are well-accepted risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, many studies that evaluated tattooing as a risk factor for HCV infection did not control for a history of IDU or transfusion prior to 1992. In this large, multicenter, case-control study, we analyzed demographic and HCV risk factor exposure history data from 3,871 patients, including 1,930 with chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA-positive) and 1,941 HCV-negative (HCV antibody-negative) controls. Crude and fully adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of tattoo exposure by multivariate logistic regression in HCV-infected versus controls were determined. As expected, IDU (65.9% versus 17.8%; P < 0.001), blood transfusion prior to 1992 (22.3% versus 11.1%; P < 0.001), and history of having one or more tattoos (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 3.23-4.49; P < 0.001) were more common in HCV-infected patients than in control subjects. After excluding all patients with a history of ever injecting drugs and those who had a blood transfusion prior to 1992, a total of 1,886 subjects remained for analysis (465 HCV-positive patients and 1,421 controls). Among these individuals without traditional risk factors, HCV-positive patients remained significantly more likely to have a history of one or more tattoos after adjustment for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 3.75-7.11; P < 0.001).
Tattooing is associated with HCV infection, even among those without traditional HCV risk factors such as IDU and blood transfusion prior to 1992.
"Tattooing and piercing are not included as risk factors in German hepatitis C guidelines yet, however, recent data indicate that tattooing is associated with hepatitis C infection . In our analysis, tattooing and piercing could not be identified as significant risk scenario. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the World Health Organization, approximately 150 million people worldwide are chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection can evolve into cirrhosis of the liver and its complications, which are ultimately responsible for more than 350,000 deaths every year. Antiviral therapy, when successful, is able to decrease the rate of progression and increase survival. Two types of therapies are currently available, ie, interferon-based therapies and interferon-free ones. The latter have several advantages in terms of safety and tolerability, and could be used even in the most advanced stages of the disease. However, their use is restricted to some viral genotypes (genotype 2 and 3) and they are expensive. Several molecules are in an advanced phase of development. This review deals with the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, and safety of asunaprevir, an inhibitor of HCV nonstructural 3 protease. Asunaprevir exerts optimal in vitro activity particularly against HCV genotypes 1 and 4, and its pharmacokinetic profile enables twice daily administration. The drawback of asunaprevir, and of all protease inhibitors, is its low barrier to resistance. Consequently, it is used in association with other drugs to prevent resistance. Specifically, when combined with daclatasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, asunaprevir results in a very high rate of viral eradication in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients, with a sustained virological response rate of 80%-90%. Tolerability is fair; in fact, asunaprevir is associated with a transient increase in aminotransferase levels, which is mild in most cases. In conclusion, asunaprevir is a good candidate component of interferon-free combinations and may revolutionize the treatment of chronic HCV infection in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
About 150,000,000 people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Treatment was based previously only on pegylated interferon combined with other antiviral drugs. Recently, the first interferon-free combination for patients with genotype 2 or 3 was approved in the USA and Europe, and several molecules are in an advanced phase of clinical development.
This review focuses on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of ledipasvir , an inhibitor of HCV nonstructural 5A protein. The authors also highlight the drug's safety and resistance profile.
The pharmacokinetic profile and antiviral activity of ledipasvir are ideal. However, given the high rate of natural and drug-related ledipasvir-resistant HCV mutations, ledipasvir is administered in combination regimens with other antiviral drugs, which resulted in a cure rate up to 100%. While ledipasvir is effective in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C, its efficacy remains to be established in patients with genotype 4, 5 or 6, in subjects with HIV coinfection, in hemodialyzed and elderly patients and in subjects with decompensated cirrhosis. If the excellent results of combination therapy be confirmed in larger trials, hepatologists will have the possibility to cure most HCV-positive patients in the near future.
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