Sickle Cell Disease in Pregnancy: Maternal Complications in a Medicaid-Enrolled Population

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS-K34, 30341, Atlanta, Georgia, .
Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 01/2013; 17(2). DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1216-3
Source: PubMed


Higher frequencies of pregnancy complications have been reported among women with sickle cell disease (SCD) compared with those without SCD; however, past studies are limited by small sample size, narrow geographic area, and use of hospital discharge data. We compared the prevalence of maternal complications among intrapartum and postpartum women with SCD to those without SCD in a large, geographically diverse sample. Data from the 2004-2010 Truven Health MarketScan(®) Multi-State Medicaid databases were used to assess the prevalence of maternal complications among intrapartum and postpartum women 15-44 years of age with and without SCD whose race was reported as black. The comparison group of women without SCD was further divided into those with chronic conditions associated with multi-organ failure and those without chronic conditions. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for outcomes for women with SCD compared with women in the two comparison groups. Of the 335,348 black women with a delivery during 2004-2010, 1,526 had a diagnosis of SCD (0.5 %). Compared with women without SCD who had chronic conditions, women with SCD had higher prevalence of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, obstetric shock, pneumonia, sepsis, postpartum infection, and transfusions. SCD was also positively associated with acute renal failure, cerebrovascular disorder, respiratory distress syndrome, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and ventilation when compared with women without SCD and chronic conditions. Overall, women with SCD have increased prevalence of pregnancy complications, even when compared with a group of women with similar risk for multi-organ failure.

Download full-text


Available from: Sheree Boulet, Mar 07, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only cure for sickle cell disease (SCD). HSCT using an HLA-identical sibling donor is currently an acceptable treatment option for children with severe SCD with expected HSCT survival greater than 95% and event-free survival greater than 85%. HSCT for children with "less severe" SCD (children who have not yet suffered overt disease complications or only had mild problems) is controversial. It is important to consider the ethical issues of a proposed study comparing HLA-identical sibling HSCT to best supportive care for children with "less severe" SCD. In evaluating the principles of nonmaleficence, respect for individual autonomy, and justice, we conclude that a study of HLA-identical sibling HSCT for all children with SCD, particularly hemoglobin SS and Sβ(0)-thalassemia disease, is ethically sound. Future work should explore the implementation of a large trial to help determine if HSCT is a beneficial treatment for children with "less severe" SCD.
    Blood 06/2014; 124(6). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-05-575209 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many clinical settings are associated with haemolysis, from rare conditions, such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, to common interventions, such as mechanical circulatory support and blood transfusion. The toxic effects of circulating free haemoglobin, haem, and iron are becoming increasingly understood and include an increased risk of thrombotic complications. This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for an association between haemolysis and thrombosis and explores potential underlying mechanisms. New insights into the role haem plays in inflammatory signalling and in generating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may provide useful strategies for managing pathological states associated with severe haemolysis. A better understanding of the toxic effects of haemolysis will result in better therapies to prevent the side effect of thrombosis.
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2014; 168(2). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13183 · 4.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher during pregnancy, with an incidence between 0.05 and 0.2%, and among persons with sickle cell disease (SCD), yet the rates and risk factors, such as pneumonia, vasooclusive crisis (VOC), and acute chest syndrome (ACS), associated with pregnancy-related VTE are not firmly established in SCD. Methods: Inpatient hospital discharge data from 2007-2011 were obtained from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council to estimate the rate of VTE among African American delivery hospitalizations with SCD and to compare pregnancy complications and medical comorbidities among pregnant women with SCD. Results: Among 212 hospitalized deliveries in African-American women with SCD, 6 (2.8%, 95% CI 1.0%-5.9%) had VTE compared to 0.05 to 2.0% in the general population. Risk factors for VTE included pneumonia and diabetes mellitus. Overall, the prevalence of VTE, among hospitalized deliveries in SCD women with pneumonia, VOC, and/or ACS, 6.6%, was significantly greater than among those without these conditions, 2.2%, p<0.001. Conclusion: Pregnancy-related VTE in women with SCD appears to be 1.5 to 5 times greater than pregnancy-related VTE in the general population. The higher prevalence of VTE among pregnant women with pneumonia, VOC, and/or ACS, and their potential clinical overlap, suggests that VTE may be missed in such women. We conclude that VTE in pregnant women with SCD may be more common than previously reported, and such women might be candidates for thromboprophylaxis.
    Thrombosis Research 12/2014; 134(6):1249-1252. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.09.037 · 2.45 Impact Factor
Show more