Expression Patterns of miR-124, miR-134, miR-132, and miR-21 in an Immature Rat Model and Children with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
ABSTRACT Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a particularly devastating form of human epilepsy with significant incidence of medical intractability. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have key roles in the pathogenesis of MTLE development. To study the dynamic expression patterns of brain-specific miR-124 and miR-134 and inflammation-related miR-132 and miR-21, we performed qPCR on the hippocampi of immature rats at 25 days of age. Expressions were monitored in the three stages of MTEL and in the control hippocampal tissues corresponding to the same timeframes. A similar expression method was applied to hippocampi obtained from children with MTLE and normal controls. The expression patterns of miR-124 and miR-134 nearly showed the same dynamics in the three stages of MTLE development. On the other hand, miR-132 and miR-21 showed significant upregulation in acute and chronic stages, while in the latent stage, miR-132 was upregulated and miR-21 was downregulated. The four miRs were upregulated in hippocampal tissues obtained from children with MTLE. The significant upregulation of miR-124 and miR-134 in the seizure-related stages and children suggested that both can be potential targets for anticonvulsant drugs in the epileptic developing brains, while the different expression patterns of miR-132 and miR-21 may suggest different functions in MTLE pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of the intractable epilepsies and is most often associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is characterized by pronounced loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregulated in epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, and we hypothesized that miRNAs could be involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS.MethodsmiRNA expression was quantified in hippocampal specimens from human patients using miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR, and by RNA-seq on fetal brain specimens from domestic pigs. In situ hybridization was used to show the spatial distribution of miRNAs in the human hippocampus. The potential effect of miRNAs on targets genes was investigated using the dual luciferase reporter gene assay.ResultsmiRNA expression profiling showed that 25 miRNAs were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in hippocampus biopsies of MTLE/HS patients compared to controls. We showed that miR-204 and miR-218 were significantly down-regulated in MTLE and HS, and both were expressed in neurons in all subfields of normal hippocampus. Moreover, miR-204 and miR-218 showed strong changes in expression during fetal development of the hippocampus in pigs, and we identified four target genes, involved in axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity, ROBO1, GRM1, SLC1A2, and GNAI2, as bona fide targets of miR-218. GRM1 was also shown to be a direct target of miR-204.SignificancemiR-204 and miR-218 are developmentally regulated in the hippocampus and may contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS.Epilepsia 11/2014; 55(12). DOI:10.1111/epi.12839 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are rapidly emerging as central regulators of gene expression in the postnatal mammalian brain. Initial studies mostly focused on the function of specific miRNAs during the development of neuronal connectivity in culture, using classical gain- and loss-of-function approaches. More recently, first examples have documented important roles of miRNAs in plastic processes in intact neural circuits in the rodent brain related to higher cognitive abilities and neuropsychiatric disease. At the same time, evidence is accumulating that miRNA function itself is subjected to sophisticated control mechanisms engaged by the activity of neural circuits. In this review, we attempt to pay tribute to this mutual relationship between miRNAs and synaptic plasticity. In particular, in the first part, we summarize how neuronal activity influences each step in the lifetime of miRNAs, including the regulation of transcription, maturation, gene regulatory function and turnover in mammals. In the second part, we discuss recent examples of miRNA function in synaptic plasticity in rodent models and their implications for higher cognitive function and neurological disorders, with a special emphasis on epilepsy as a disorder of abnormal nerve cell activity.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 09/2014; 369(1652). DOI:10.1098/rstb.2013.0515 · 6.31 Impact Factor
Article: Epigenetic mechanisms in epilepsy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In humans, genomic DNA is organized in 23 chromosome pairs coding for roughly 25,000 genes. Not all of them are active at all times. During development, a broad range of different cell types needs to be generated in a highly ordered and reproducible manner, requiring selective gene expression programs. Epigenetics can be regarded as the information management system that is able to index or bookmark distinct regions in our genome to regulate the readout of DNA. It further comprises the molecular memory of any given cell, allowing it to store information of previously experienced external (e.g., environmental) or internal (e.g., developmental) stimuli, to learn from this experience and to respond. The underlying epigenetic mechanisms can be synergistic, antagonistic, or mutually exclusive and their large variety combined with the variability and interdependence is thought to provide the molecular basis for any phenotypic variation in physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, widespread reconfiguration of the epigenome is not only a key feature of neurodevelopment, brain maturation, and adult brain function but also disease.Progress in brain research 01/2014; 213C:279-316. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-63326-2.00014-4 · 5.10 Impact Factor