The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome among indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Puerto Rico receiving their healthcare in a managed care system, as compared with non-indigent patients treated in fee-for-service settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 214 Puerto Ricans with RA (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Demographic features, health-related behaviors, cumulative clinical manifestations, disease activity (per disease activity score 28), comorbid conditions, functional status (per Health Assessment Questionnaire), and pharmacologic profile were determined. Data were examined using uni- and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of the study population was 56.6 (13.5) years; 180 (84.1 %) were women. The mean (SD) disease duration was 10.8 (9.6) years. Sixty-seven patients were treated in the managed care setting, and 147 patients received their healthcare in fee-for-service settings. In the multivariable analyses, RA patients treated in the managed care setting had more joint deformities, extra-articular manifestations, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, fibromyalgia syndrome, and poorer functional status while having a lower exposure to biological agents than those treated in fee-for-service settings. Efforts should be undertaken to curtail the gap of health disparities among these Hispanic patients in order to improve their long-term outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first Whitehall Study showed an inverse social gradient in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) among British civil servants--namely, that there were higher rates in men of lower employment grade. About a quarter of this gradient could be attributed to coronary risk factors. We analysed 5-year CHD incidence rates from the Whitehall II study to assess the contribution to the social gradient of psychosocial work environment, social support, coronary risk factors, and physical height.
Data were collected in the first three phases of examination of men and women in the Whitehall II study. 7372 people were contacted on all three occasions. Mean length of follow-up was 5.3 years. Characteristics from the baseline, phase 1, questionnaire, and examination were related to newly reported CHD in people without CHD at baseline. Three self-reported CHD outcomes were examined: angina and chest pain from the Rose questionnaire, and doctor-diagnosed ischaemia. The contribution of different factors to the socioeconomic differences in incident CHD was assessed by adjustment of odds ratios.
Compared with men in the highest grade (administrators), men in the lowest grade (clerical and office-support staff) had an age-adjusted odds ratio of developing any new CHD of 1.50. The largest difference was for doctor-diagnosed ischaemia (odds ratio for the lowest compared with the highest grade 2.27). For women, the odds ratio in the lowest grade was 1.47 for any CHD. Of factors examined, the largest contribution to the socioeconomic gradient in CHD frequency was from low control at work. Height and standard coronary risk factors made smaller contributions. Adjustment for all these factors reduced the odds ratios for newly reported CHD in the lowest grade from 1.5 to 0.95 in men, and from 1.47 to 1.07 in women.
Much of the inverse social gradient in CHD incidence can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment. Additional contributions were made by coronary risk factors--mainly smoking--and from factors that act early in life, as represented by physical height.
The Lancet 08/1997; 350(9073):235-9. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04244-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the use of biologic agents among persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in managed care and fee-for-service settings.
The present study uses data from the University of California, San Francisco RA Panel Study in which 529 patients with RA from a random sample of northern California rheumatologists were interviewed annually between 1999 and 2002 using a structured survey instrument. Linear and logistic regression were used to compare current utilization, initiation, and cessation of biologic agents and other treatments among patients with RA in managed care and fee-for-service settings, with and without adjustment for differences in demographic and health characteristics.
After adjustment, patients with RA in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were significantly less likely to use biologic agents than those in other managed care settings (difference of -6.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -11.4%, -1.7%) or than those in fee-for-service settings (difference of -12.5%; 95% CI -19.0%, -5.9%); patients in other managed care settings and fee-for-service did not differ significantly in their use of biologic agents. Patients with RA in HMOs were significantly less likely than those in other managed care settings to initiate the use of biologic agents (difference of -7.3%; 95% CI -11.5%, -3.1%); there were no other differences between patients in HMOs and those in other managed care and fee-for-service settings in rates of initiation or cessation of these agents. Patients with RA in HMOs were less likely to use methotrexate, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors, and corticosteroids than those in other managed care settings; they were also less likely to use COX-2 inhibitors than those in fee-for-service settings.
Patients with RA in HMOs were significantly less likely to use biologic agents than those in other managed care and fee-for-service settings, primarily due to lower rates of initiation.
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