[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maghreb is known to be one of the most endemic areas of leishmaniases where both visceral and cutaneous forms are reported. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is older and has a higher prevalence than visceral one (VL). It is caused by four taxa (Leishmania (L.) major, L. infantum, L. tropica and L. killicki) which are responsible for a large clinical spectrum of lesions. Most transmission cycles of these taxa are known and many phlebotomine sandflies vectors and reservoir hosts are identified. The zoonotic transmission is well established for L. major. However, for L. infantum and L. killicki it needs more investigations to be proven. Regarding L. tropica, studies suggest it to be of both zoonotic and anthroponotic types. The isoenzymatic characterization of these four taxa showed a large enzymatic polymorphism varying from two zymodemes for L. major to 10 zymodemes for L. tropica. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is widely distributed and covers all bioclimatic stages with the coexistence of more than one taxon in the same foci. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second form of leishmaniases in Maghreb. Only L. infantum is known to cause this disease. The transmission cycle of this parasite is zoonotic but still not well known. The isoenzymatic identification of L. infantum causing VL showed the presence of six zymodemes. Geographically, VL is distributed in all bioclimatic stages of Maghreb countries. Despite all the previous studies realized on leishmaniases in Maghreb, they are still considered as neglected diseases because of the rarity or the absence of efficient control strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major world health problem. Diagnosis is suspected on evocative clinical presentation in patients living in or coming from endemic areas. Several methods have been used. The smear is a simple investigation used in endemic regions. The culture enables to identify the specimen. PCR has a high sensitivity. Montenegro's reaction is used in the epidemiological study. Pentavalent antimony derivatives remain the mainstay of systemic treatment. Their efficiency is well established. Their toxicity should be researched. Other treatments can be utilized, such as miltefosine. Local therapy is used in uncomplicated lesions. Injections of the pentavalent antimony derivate, cryotherapy and paromomycin ointmentsis are important options and should be used more frequently in Old World leishmaniasis.
Journal of Dermatological Case Reports 06/2013; 7(2):31-41.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the erysipeloid form of cutaneous leishmaniasis as well as its diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old woman, with no medical history, presented with a one-month history of erythematous nasal swelling. The lesion appeared after an accidental trauma. Erythematous infiltrative plaque was noted on the center of the face. There were also crust formations on the traumatic region. Despite local treatment and oral antibiotherapy, there was no improvement. The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was confirmed by positive skin smears. Histopathological examinations of a skin biopsy showed no malignancy. The patient was treated intramuscularly with 10mg/kg per day systemic meglumine antimoniate with partial regression of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The erysipeloid type is a rare and unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis that often causes late diagnosis. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of the parasite by skin smear, histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction. There are various therapeutic options. The evolution is generally favourable.
European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases 01/2011; 128(2):95-7.
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