Dual Effects of Isoflurane on Proliferation, Differentiation, and Survival in Human Neuroprogenitor Cells

and Department of Anesthesiology, Qingpu Branch of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. ‡ Research Specialist, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. § Research Visiting Scholar, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 5.88). 01/2013; 118(3). DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182833fae
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background:
Previous studies have demonstrated that isoflurane can provide both neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in various tissue culture models and in rodent developing brains. The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating these dual effects are not clear, but the exposure level and duration of isoflurane appear to be determinant factors.

Using the ReNcell CX (Millipore, Billerica, MA) human neural progenitor cell line, the authors investigated the impact of prolonged exposure to varying isoflurane concentrations on cell survival and neurogenesis. In addition, the authors assessed the impact of short isoflurane preconditioning on elevation of cytosolic Ca concentration and cytotoxic effects mediated by prolonged isoflurane exposures and the contribution of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate or ryanodine receptor activation to these processes.

Short exposures to low isoflurane concentrations promote proliferation and differentiation of ReNcell CX cells, with no cell damage. However, prolonged exposures to high isoflurane concentrations induced significant ReNcell CX cell damage and inhibited cell proliferation. These prolonged exposures suppressed neuronal cell fate and promoted glial cell fate. Preconditioning of ReNcell CX cultures with short exposures to low concentrations of isoflurane ameliorated the effects of prolonged exposures to isoflurane. Pretreatment of ReNcell cultures with inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate or ryanodine receptor antagonists mostly prevented isoflurane-mediated effects on survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Finally, isoflurane-preconditioned cultures showed significantly less isoflurane-evoked changes in calcium concentration.

The commonly used general anesthetic isoflurane exerts dual effects on neuronal stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, which may be attributed to differential regulation of calcium release through activation of endoplasmic reticulum localized inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and/or ryanodine receptors.

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    • "// (ASN) [PREPRINTER stage] exposure to high isoflurane concentrations induced cell damage and inhibited proliferation (Zhao et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. © The Author(s) 2015.
    ASN Neuro 04/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.1177/1759091415575845 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Besides diazoxide, several chemical compounds have also been demonstrated to be effective in preconditioning SCs by improving their survival, proliferation, and differentiation either in vitro or after transplantation in pre-clinical models (Table  2) [99-108]. Since the mechanisms of action of these drugs are different from those attributable to the hypoxic treatments, they will be not discussed further. "
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    ABSTRACT: The efficiency of regenerative medicine can be ameliorated by improving the biological performances of stem cells before their transplantation. Several ex-vivo protocols of non-damaging cell hypoxia have been demonstrated to significantly increase survival, proliferation and post-engraftment differentiation potential of stem cells. The best results for priming cultured stem cells against a following, otherwise lethal, ischemic stress have been obtained with brief intermittent episodes of hypoxia, or anoxia, and reoxygenation in accordance with the extraordinary protection afforded by the conventional maneuver of ischemic preconditioning in severely ischemic organs. These protocols of hypoxic preconditioning can be rather easily reproduced in a laboratory; however, more suitable pharmacological interventions inducing stem cell responses similar to those activated in hypoxia are considered among the most promising solutions for future applications in cell therapy. Here we want to offer an up-to-date review of the molecular mechanisms translating hypoxia into beneficial events for regenerative medicine. To this aim the involvement of epigenetic modifications, microRNAs, and oxidative stress, mainly activated by hypoxia inducible factors, will be discussed. Stem cell adaptation to their natural hypoxic microenvironments (niche) in healthy and neoplastic tissues will be also considered.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 08/2013; 20(1):63. DOI:10.1186/1423-0127-20-63 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "The effect of general anesthesia on neurogenesis, however, is controversial. Whether anesthesia stimulates or depresses neurogenesis appears to depend on the duration, concentration [30], and type of anesthetic administrated [31], [32], as well as the animal model used [27] and the experimental conditions [33]. We found that 3% sevoflurane treatment for 6 h significantly decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the hippocampus DG in P7 rats. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group) were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil) enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7) were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control). The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG) progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9), respectively. Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working memory and short-term memory of rats at their adulthood, which may through inducing neuronal apoptosis and decreasing neurogenesis. However, these sevoflurane-induced unfavorable neuronal effects can be mitigated by perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplementation.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70645. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070645 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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