Surgery for Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, 125 Parker Hill Avenue, Boston, MA 02120, USA. Electronic address: .
Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.69). 02/2013; 39(1):203-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.rdc.2012.10.008
Source: PubMed


Although total knee replacement is an excellent treatment of end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee in the older (>65 years) population, many patients with less severe disease are significantly impacted by their symptoms and have failed to respond to less invasive treatment alternatives. For this group, there are several less invasive surgical alternatives, including arthroscopic meniscectomy, grafting of symptomatic areas of bone marrow lesions, unloading osteotomy, and unicompartmental knee replacement. Current total knee arthroplasty designs can be expected to survive 20 years or more in the older, less active population. New materials may extend that survivorship.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anterior knee pain remains common following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of patellar decompression via drilling for the treatment of anterior knee pain following TKA without patellar resurfacing. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed in 271 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee replacement with patellar decompression (study group, n = 131) or without decompression (control group, n = 140). The patients were assessed according to the Knee Society rating, clinical anterior knee pain score, and British Orthopaedic Association patient-satisfaction score in each group. Each assessment was performed without the examiner knowing whether the patella had been decompressed. Radiographic evaluations were also performed according to the Knee Society scoring system for functional activity and our own severity grade system for patellofemoral articular change. Results: There were no adverse events following patellar decompression. The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.71). However, patients presenting pain over grade II after the operation in the study group were statistically low (p = 0.01). The overall postoperative knee scores were higher in the study group, but there were no significant differences between groups (p = 0.0731). Analyses of the radiographs revealed similar postoperative outcomes in both groups of knees. Conclusions: As we observed significantly lower rates of anterior knee pain and no patellar complications following patellar decompression via drilling in TKA without patellar resurfacing, we recommend performing patellar decompression in cases of total knee replacement without patellar resurfacing.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 02/2013; 133(4). DOI:10.1007/s00402-013-1702-0 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are surgical treatment options for unicompartmental knee arthritis; these procedures are indicated for patients who do not have severe arthritis in the lateral compartment. Valgus stress radiographs sometimes are used to make this evaluation, but this test has not been critically evaluated. We sought to determine (1) whether valgus stress radiographs help to evaluate the integrity of the cartilage in the lateral compartment in patients undergoing TKA for noninflammatory arthritis, and (2) whether valgus stress radiographs can identify patients whose varus deformity is correctable. We reviewed preoperative hip-to-ankle standing radiographs, AP standing radiographs, and valgus stress radiographs of 84 patients (91 knees) who underwent TKA for varus knee arthritis between July 2010 and January 2012. Valgus stress radiographs were obtained with the patient supine with the knee 20° flexed and a firm manual valgus force was applied through the knee. On valgus stress radiographs, the lateral compartment joint space width and the corrected mechanical alignment were measured. Intraoperative cartilage assessment (Outerbridge grade) was compared with lateral compartment joint space width. Knees with mechanical leg alignment of 3° varus to 3° valgus on valgus stress radiographs were considered correctable deformities. The lateral compartment joint space width on valgus stress radiographs did not correlate with the intraoperative Outerbridge grading of the lateral compartment cartilage (rs = -0.154; p = 0.146). The majority of knees (93%; 55 of 59) with 10° or less mechanical varus on hip-to-ankle standing radiographs were correctable within the range of 3° varus to 3° valgus. Valgus stress radiographs provided no added benefit to the radiographic assessment of the lateral compartment cartilage and regarding the correctability of the varus deformity. Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 08/2013; 471(12). DOI:10.1007/s11999-013-3212-3 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Intra-articular (IA) drug delivery is very useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic joint affliction. However, the therapeutic effect of IA administration depends mostly on the efficacy of drug delivery. Areas covered: The present article reviews the current status of IA therapy for OA treatment as well as its rationale. Outlines of drug delivery parameters such as release profile, retention time, distribution, size and transport that influence the drug's biological performance in the joints are summarized. New delivery systems, currently under investigation, including liposome, nanoparticle, microparticle and hydrogel formulations are introduced. Functionalized drug delivery systems by targeting and thermoresponsiveness that are being investigated for OA treatment via IA therapy are also addressed. Expert opinion: Several delivery systems, including liposome, microparticles, nanoparticles and hydrogels, have been investigated for the sustained drug delivery to the joints. These can be advanced by the use of functionalized drug delivery systems that can lead targeting to specific regions and thermoresponsiveness for prolonged drug release in the joints. Further advances will bring forth new biocompatible and biodegradable materials as a drug carrier or new combination regimens. Future innovations in this field should be directed toward the development of adapted delivery systems that can induce tissue regeneration in OA patients.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 12/2013; 11(2). DOI:10.1517/17425247.2014.867325 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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