Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide residues in surface waters in northeastern Greece. Water Res 43:1

School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Pesticide Science Laboratory, P.O. Box 1678, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 11/2008; 43(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.09.021
Source: PubMed


A monitoring study of 147 compounds in surface river waters from northeastern Greece near Greek/Bulgarian/Turkish borders was carried out during 1999–2007. Based on agricultural use eight sampling points along the rivers Ardas, Evros and Erythropotamos were set up, covering the distance from the Greek/Bulgarian borders down to the river's discharge (river's delta) in the Greek territory. In total, 88 sampling events were carried out from 1999 to 2007. Pesticides were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–EI-MS) using a multiresidue in-house analytical method including pesticides belonging to different chemical classes. Aquatic risk concerning the detected pesticides was assessed on the basis of the risk quotient (RQ = PEC/PNEC). From the 28 compounds (pesticides, metabolites and caffeine) that were detected in surface waters of northeastern Greece the soil applied pesticides were the most frequently detected. High pesticide concentrations were detected within 2 months of their application. Extreme pesticide concentrations were detected in the beginning of the irrigation season or just after high rainfall events. Generally, low levels of pesticide residues were found in the first sampling point (Greek/Bulgarian borders) of all rivers, however o′,p′ DDT, o′,p′ DDE and γ-HCH were mainly detected in this sampling point regarded as cross-boundary contamination. The most commonly encountered compounds in the river waters were atrazine, DEA, alachlor, trifluralin, prometryne, molinate, carbofuran, carbaryl and diazinon. Increased loading (primary as well as secondary peaks) seemed to be a consequence of application (timing, rate, frequency) and intense rainfall during the application period. Aquatic risk assessment revealed that from the 28 compounds that were constantly detected 12 showed non-acceptable risk when median concentrations were used as PEC and 18 when extreme concentrations were used as PEC values.

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    • "). Our results are in agreement with those of Vryzas et al. (2009) and Thomatou et al. (2013) which also pointed out the high RQ values calculated for the insecticides in the Evros basin and Lake Amvrakia, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken for the evaluation of the pesticide pollution caused by the agricultural activities in the basin of Lake Vistonis, Greece during the years 2010-2012. Water samples were collected from Lake Vistonis, four major rivers and various small streams and agriculture drainage canals. The concentration of 302 compounds was determined after solid-phase extraction of the water samples and subsequent LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts. Overall, herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides (57%), followed by insecticides (28%) and fungicides (14%). In Lake Vistonis 11 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 75% of the samples (maximum concentration 0.088μg/L) whereas lambda-cyhalothrin was detected in all the samples of spring 2011 and alphamethrin in all the samples of spring 2012 (maximum concentration 0.041 and 0.168μg/L, respectively). In the rivers and drainage canals 68 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 53% of the samples (maximum concentration 317.6μg/L) followed by chlorpyrifos and prometryn (16 and 13% of the samples respectively). An environmental risk assessment was performed by employing the Risk Quotient (RQ) method. The risk assessment revealed that at least one pesticide concentration led to a RQ>1 in 20% of the samples. In Lake Vistonis, alphamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin concentrations resulted in RQ>1, whereas in the other water bodies this was mainly the result of chlorpyrifos-methyl and alphamethrin exposure. In contrast, herbicide and fungicide concentrations contributed substantially less to environmental risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 12/2015; 536:793-802. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.099 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "In the region of Thrace, the dominant crops were corn, cotton, sugarbeet and sunflower. In the region of Thessaly, the major crops were cotton, corn, grains and sugar beets (Damalas et al., 2008; Vryzas et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1μg/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1μg/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031μgL), dicofol (0.01μg/L), dieldrin (0.02μg/L) and endosulfan a (0.065μg/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk values. The coupling of monitoring data to probabilistic human and ecotoxicological risk estimates could find use by Greek regulatory authorities, proposing effective pollution management schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 06/2015; 116:1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.02.033 · 2.76 Impact Factor
    • "Altas concentraciones de plaguicidas son detectadas dentro de los dos meses después de su aplicación. Concentraciones extremas de plaguicidas son detectadas al principio de la estación de irrigación y justo después de eventos de lluvia fuertes (Vryzas et al., 2009 "
    04/2015; 67. DOI:10.5377/wani.v67i0.1889
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