Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on brain and behavior in mice.
ABSTRACT Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread estrogenic chemical used in the production of polycarbonate, and epoxy resins lining food and beverage cans and in dental sealants. During fetal life the intrauterine environment is critical for the normal development, and even small changes in the levels of hormones, such as estradiol or estrogen-mimicking chemicals, can lead to changes in brain function and consequently in behavior. We review here a series of ethological studies on the effects of maternal oral exposure during the last part of gestation (prenatal exposure) or from gestation day 11 to postnatal day 7 (perinatal exposure) to a low, environmentally relevant dose of BPA (10 microg/kg bw/day) on behavioral responses of CD-1 mouse offspring. We examined both male and female offspring and found that maternal exposure to BPA affected: (1) behavioral responses to novelty before puberty and, as adults; (2) exploration and activity in a free-exploratory open field; (3) exploration in the elevated plus maze and (4) sensitivity to amphetamine-induced reward in the conditioned place preference test. A consistent effect of the maternal exposure to BPA is that in all these different experimental settings, while a significant sex difference was observed in the control group, exposure to BPA decreased or eliminated the sex difference in behavior. In addition, exposure of female mice to BPA in both adulthood or during fetal life altered subsequent maternal behavior. These findings, together with those from other laboratories, are evidence of long-term consequences of maternal exposure to low-dose BPA at the level of neurobehavioral development.
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ABSTRACT: Cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons are often used to study neuronal cell biology. We report that the development of these neurons is strongly affected by chemicals leaching from commonly used disposable medical-grade syringes and syringe filters. Contamination of culture medium by bioactive substance(s) from syringes and filters occurred with multiple manufacturing lots and filter types under normal use conditions and resulted in changes to neurite growth, axon formation and the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. The effects on neuronal morphology were concentration-dependent and significant effects were detected even after substantial dilution of the contaminated medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed many chemicals eluting from the syringes and filters. Three of these chemicals (stearic acid, palmitic acid and 1,2-ethanediol monoacetate) were tested but showed no effects on neurite growth. Similar changes in neuronal morphology were seen with high concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), two hormonally-active plasticisers. Although no such compounds were detected by GC-MS, unknown plasticisers in leachates may affect neurites. This is the first study to show that leachates from laboratory consumables can alter the growth of cultured hippocampal neurons. We highlight important considerations to ensure leachate contamination does not compromise cell biology experiments.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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- Electrochimica Acta 10/2014; 144:324-331. · 4.09 Impact Factor