The nurse's role in the prevention of cervical cancer among underserved and minority populations.
ABSTRACT Since the implementation of the Papanicolaou test, there has been a significant decline in the incidence of cervical cancer over the last 50 years. Despite this reduction, each year there are approximately 11,000 women in the United States diagnosed with cervical cancer, the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for the development of precancerous lesions and the progression to cervical cancer. For those diagnosed with an HPV infection or cervical cancer, a considerable personal and financial burden often results. Recent analyses estimate that the total direct costs associated with cervical dysplasia and cancer are extensive. Additionally, a patient's quality of life (social, emotional, and sexual functioning) is adversely affected following a diagnosis with an HPV infection or cervical cancer. The data also show disparities in the incidence of cervical cancer and barriers that may contribute to these phenomena in underserved populations. National programs have been implemented and can help reduce the burden of disease, but vaccination against HPV remains the primary method of prevention. In the healthcare field, nurses play many roles, a prominent one being a patient educator. As a result, there is a need to educate nurses about the risks and impact of HPV and cervical cancer. Nurses can be instrumental in educating the public about vaccination and increasing awareness of HPV and cervical cancer among the underserved.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Explore the regional differences in breast (BC) and cervical cancer (CC) mortality in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated mortality trends for BC and CC using probabilistic models adjusted by state marginalization level and urban and rural residence. RESULTS: BC mortality shows a rising trend, from a rate of 5.6 deaths per 100000 women in 1979 to 10.1 in 2006. The CC mortality rate reached a peak in 1989 and after this decreased significantly to 9.9 in 2006. The highest BC mortality rates are found in Mexico City (13.2) and the northern part of the country (11.8). As for CC, the highest mortality rates are found in the south (11.9 per 100000 women the). DISCUSSION: The number of BC cases are increased gradually at the national level during the last three decades and high rates of CC mortality persist in marginalized areas.Salud publica de Mexico 01/2009; 51. DOI:10.1590/S0036-36342009000800011 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimTo assess and understand the barriers faced by Vietnamese marital immigrant women who do not regularly undergo cervical screenings in Southeast Taiwan. Background Studies have shown a low uptake rate of preventive medical services among immigrants. As immigrant women may not be aware of the healthcare delivery system in their host country, their uptake of and access to healthcare services might be limited. DesignA qualitative, descriptive inquiry design was adopted. Methods This qualitative study employed semi-structured, individual, in-depth interviews of 17 Vietnamese immigrant women. Data were collected from February-July 2011 and analysed using content analysis. FindingsThe barriers to receiving cervical screening were lack of health literacy, lack of female healthcare providers, negative perceptions of cervical screening and personal reasons. Conclusion The results might serve as a reference for government entities and healthcare providers in Taiwan to improve cervical screening rates; this should help enhance the effectiveness of healthcare services for Vietnamese immigrant women. The findings can also provide a reference for making appropriate healthcare policies for immigrant women in other countries.Journal of Advanced Nursing 05/2013; 70(1). DOI:10.1111/jan.12168 · 1.69 Impact Factor