Post Stroke Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Clinical Outcome Among Patients With Ischemic Stroke A Nationwide Propensity Score-matched Follow-up Study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed after stroke. We aimed to investigate whether potential antiplatelet or vasospastic effects have important clinical implications. METHODS: Using data from Danish medical registries, we did a nationwide follow-up study among ischemic stroke patients between 2003 and 2009. We identified 5833 SSRI users, and propensity score matched these patients with nonusers in a 1:1 ratio, followed by Cox regression analysis to compute hazard ratios (HRs) of acute myocardial infarction, recurrent stroke, major bleeding, and death. RESULTS: Median follow-up time (from 30 days after discharge to death/end of follow-up) was 1159 days. In total, 2.9% had myocardial infarction, 8.1% recurrent ischemic stroke, 20.2% major bleeding, 1.4% intracranial bleeding, and 34.4% died during follow-up. SSRI users had a lower risk of the combined outcome of myocardial infarction or recurrent ischemic stroke (adjusted HR, 0.77; confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.96). However, the SSRI users also experienced a higher risk of overall major bleeding (adjusted HR, 1.33; CI, 1.14-1.55) and a nonsignificantly higher risk of intracranial bleedings (adjusted HR, 1.14; CI, 0.62-2.12). Mortality increased in SSRI users (adjusted HR, 1.13; CI, 1.00-1.28) and death caused by bleeding increased (adjusted HR, 1.89; CI, 0.97-3.66) as compared with death by other causes (adjusted HR, 1.11; CI; 0.98-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: SSRI use after ischemic stroke was associated with a lower risk of new cardiovascular events and also with an increased bleeding risk. There was an increased mortality among SSRI users, which may be related to the increased bleeding risk.
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ABSTRACT: Serotonergic antidepressants (SADs) are associated with increased bleeding risk. To develop optimal guidelines for the usage of antidepressants in the perioperative period, this review of the bleeding risk associated with SADs was conducted. A total of 10 original articles describing the relationship between SAD use and perioperative bleeding published in English before June 2013 were selected and reviewed. A total of 6 studies showed positive associations between SAD use and perioperative bleeding. In particular, SAD use before orthopedic or breast surgery was associated with a tendency toward increased intraoperative or postoperative bleeding (i.e., increased need for transfusion during surgery, greater amount of intraoperative blood loss, bleeding events requiring intervention, or reoperation owing to postoperative bleeding). However, 3 studies among SAD users undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and 1 study in SAD users undergoing facial surgery did not report an increased risk for postoperative bleeding. The risks and benefits of SAD use should be weighed in all patients undergoing surgical operations. Physicians may consider planned discontinuation of SADs 2 weeks before the operation in patients with a high risk of bleeding but in the stable phase of depression. SAD discontinuation syndrome should be managed appropriately. If, despite the expected exacerbation of depression after discontinuation of antidepressants, discontinuation of SADs is nonetheless required because of the patient's clinical risk of bleeding, changing to an antidepressant that does not, or less potently, inhibits serotonin reuptake (e.g., bupropion or mirtazapine) can be considered.Psychosomatics 12/2013; 55(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psym.2013.08.011 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since several studies have inconsistently reported the association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the risk of stroke, we performed a meta-analysis on this issue. We identified studies by searching three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) from their inception to August, 2013. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by using random-effects meta-analysis. Thirteen relevant studies (three case-control, six nested case-control, and four cohort studies) were finally included in our study. In our meta-analyses, the use of SSRIs was associated with an increased risk of all types of stroke [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.40; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.80], ischemic stroke (aOR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.08-2.02), and hemorrhagic stroke (aOR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.02-1.71). Between the two subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke, that is, intracerebral and subarachnoid, the increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with the use of SSRIs (aOR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.02-1.67). When the analysis was restricted to the studies in which potential confounding by depression was considered, the risks were still higher in SSRI users than in non-users and the heterogeneities among studies were significantly decreased. Since there was heterogeneity among studies and a possible confounding effect from depression could not be fully excluded, further well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.Journal of Neurology 01/2014; 261(4). DOI:10.1007/s00415-014-7251-9 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose-Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with an increased risk of bleeding but also a possible neuroprotective effect in stroke. We aimed to examine the implications of prestroke SSRI use in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Methods-We conducted a registry-based propensity score-matched follow-up study among first-ever patients with hemorrhage and ischemic stroke in Denmark (2003-2012). Multiple conditional logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios of severe stroke and death within 30 days. Results-Among 1252 hemorrhagic strokes (626 prestroke SSRI users and 626 propensity score-matched nonusers), prestroke SSRI use was associated with an increased risk of the strokes being severe (adjusted propensity score-matched odds ratios, 1.41; confidence interval, 1.08-1.84) and an increased risk of death within 30 days (adjusted propensity score-matched odds ratios, 1.60; confidence interval, 1.17-2.18). Among 8956 patients with ischemic stroke (4478 prestroke SSRI users and 4478 propensity score-matched nonusers), prestroke SSRI use was not associated with the risk of severe stroke or death within 30 days. Conclusions-Prestroke SSRI use is associated with increased stroke severity and mortality in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Although prestroke depression in itself may increase stroke severity and mortality, this was not found in SSRI users with ischemic stroke.Stroke 06/2014; 45(7). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005302 · 6.02 Impact Factor