Article

Phylogenetic Position and Evolutionary History of the Turtle and Whale Barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Coronuloidea).

Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8564, Japan.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.02). 01/2013; 67(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.12.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Barnacles of the superfamily Coronuloidea are obligate epibionts of various marine mammals, marine reptiles and large crustaceans. We used five molecular markers: 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone 3 to infer phylogenetic relationships among sixteen coronuloids, representing most of the recent genera of barnacles of this superfamily. Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Coronuloidea and that this superfamily and Tetraclitoidea are sister groups. The six-plated Austrobalanus clusters with these two superfamilies. Based on BEAST and ML trees, Austrobalanus is basal and sister to the Coronuloidea, but the NJ tree places Austrobalanus within the Tetraclitoidae, and in the MP tree it is sister to both Coronuloidea and Tetraclitoidae. Hence the position of Austrobalanus remains unresolved. Within the Coronuloidea we identified four clades. Chelonibia occupies a basal position within the Coronuloidea which is in agreement with previous studies. The grouping of the other clades does not conform to previous studies. Divergence time analyses show that some of the time estimates are congruent with the fossil record while some others are older, suggesting the possibility of gaps in the fossil record.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Noa Simon-Blecher, Jul 01, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
363 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Barnacles in the genus Chelonibia are commensal with a variety of motile marine animals including sea turtles, crustaceans, and sirenians. We conducted a worldwide molecular phylogenetic survey of Chelonibia collected from nearly all known hosts to assess species relationships, host-fidelity, and phylogeographic structure. Using DNA sequences from a protein-coding mitochondrial gene (COI), a mitochondrial rRNA gene (12S), and one nuclear rRNA gene (28S), we found that of four species, three (C. testudinaria, C. patula, and C. manati) are genetically indistinguishable. In addition, we show each utilizes a rare androdioecious mode of reproduction involving complemental males. In contrast, the fourth species (C. caretta), which is hermaphroditic and specializes on turtles, is genetically distinct—leading to the conclusion that the three former taxa are morphotypes of the same species and should be synonymized under C. testudinaria. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in three geographic clades (Atlantic, Indian Ocean/western Pacific, and eastern Pacific) with haplotype parsimony networks revealing no shared haplotypes among geographic regions. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant differences among sequences by region (p < 0.005); conversely, there were no significant differences among sequences when grouped by host or taxonomic designation. Average pairwise genetic distances were lower between the eastern Pacific and Atlantic clades (0.053 ± 0.006) than between the eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean/western Pacific clades (0.073 ± 0.008), suggesting Atlantic and eastern Pacific populations were connected more recently, perhaps until the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. Host use by Chelonibia morphotypes is discussed along with speculation on possible ancestral hosts and support for a “turtle-first” hypothesis.
    Marine Biology 01/2013; 161(1). DOI:10.1007/s00227-013-2312-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Specimens of the turtle barnacle Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 were collected from sea turtles in Japanese waters. The specimens were hexagonal in shape and were found burrowing into the sea turtle plastron. Specimens were dissected and the hard and soft parts were compared with the original description.
    ZooKeys 08/2013; DOI:10.3897/zookeys.327.5732 · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In his monograph on Cirripedia from 1851 [1], Darwin pointed to a highly unusual, plateless, and most likely parasitic barnacle of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. Darwin's barnacle was Anelasma squalicola, found on deep-water sharks of the family Etmopteridae, or lantern sharks [2]. The barnacle is uncommon and is therefore rarely studied. Recent observations by us have shown that they occur at an unusually high prevalence on the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax, in restricted fjord areas of western Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA data (16S, 18S, and 28S) from 99 selected barnacle species, including all available pedunculate barnacle sequences from GenBank, shows that A. squalicola is most closely related (sister taxon) to the pedunculate barnacle Capitulum mitella. Both C. mitella and species of Pollicipes, situated one node higher in the tree, are conventional suspension feeders from the rocky intertidal. Our phylogenetic analysis now makes it possible to establish morphological homologies between A. squalicola and its sister taxon and provides the evolutionary framework to explain the unprecedented transition from a filter-feeding barnacle to a parasitic mode of life.
    Current Biology 06/2014; 24(12). DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.030 · 9.92 Impact Factor