ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 Polymorphisms and Heroin Dependence Importance of Considering Drug Exposure
ABSTRACT CONTEXT The genetic contribution to liability for opioid dependence is well established; identification of the responsible genes has proved challenging. OBJECTIVE To examine association of 1430 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with heroin dependence, reporting here only the 71 SNPs in the chromosome 11 gene cluster (NCAM1, TTC12, ANKK1, DRD2) that include the strongest observed associations. DESIGN Case-control genetic association study that included 2 control groups (lacking an established optimal control group). SETTING Semistructured psychiatric interviews. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1459 Australian cases ascertained from opioid replacement therapy clinics, 531 neighborhood controls ascertained from economically disadvantaged areas near opioid replacement therapy clinics, and 1495 unrelated Australian Twin Registry controls not dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs selected from a twin and family sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Lifetime heroin dependence. RESULTS Comparison of cases with Australian Twin Registry controls found minimal evidence of association for all chromosome 11 cluster SNPs (P ≥ .01); a similar comparison with neighborhood controls revealed greater differences (P ≥ 1.8 × 10-4). Comparing cases (n = 1459) with the subgroup of neighborhood controls not dependent on illicit drugs (n = 340), 3 SNPs were significantly associated (correcting for multiple testing): ANKK1 SNP rs877138 (most strongly associated; odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32-1.92; P = 9.7 × 10-7), ANKK1 SNP rs4938013, and TTC12 SNP rs7130431. A similar pattern of association was observed when comparing illicit drug-dependent (n = 191) and nondependent (n = 340) neighborhood controls, suggesting that liability likely extends to nonopioid illicit drug dependence. Aggregate heroin dependence risk associated with 2 SNPs, rs877138 and rs4492854 (located in NCAM1), varied more than 4-fold (P = 2.7 × 10-9 for the risk-associated linear trend). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide further evidence of association for chromosome 11 gene cluster SNPs with substance dependence, including extension of liability to illicit drug dependence. Our findings highlight the necessity of considering drug exposure history when selecting control groups for genetic investigations of illicit drug dependence.
Article: Genetics of Opiate Addiction[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.Current Psychiatry Reports 11/2014; 16(11):504. DOI:10.1007/s11920-014-0504-6 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dopaminergic pathways have been implicated in the etiology of drug addictions. The aim of this study was to determine if variants in dopaminergic genes are associated with heroin addiction. The study includes 828 former heroin addicts and 232 healthy controls, of predominantly European ancestry. Ninety seven SNPs (13 genes) were analyzed. Nine nominally significant associations were observed at CSNK1E, ANKK1, DRD2 and DRD3. The results support our previous report of association of CSNK1E SNP rs1534891 with protection from heroin addiction. CSNK1E interacts with circadian rhythms and DARPP-32 and has been implicated in negative regulation of sensitivity to opioids in rodents. It may be a target for drug addiction treatment. Original submitted 8 August 2014; Revision submitted 8 October 2014.Pharmacogenomics 12/2014; 15(16):2001-9. DOI:10.2217/pgs.14.145 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drugs of abuse activate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Genetic variations in the dopaminergic system may contribute to drug addiction. Several processes are shared between cocaine and heroin addictions but some neurobiological mechanisms may be specific. This study examined the association of 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 dopamine-related genes with heroin addiction (OD) and/or cocaine addiction (CD) in a sample of 801 African Americans (315 subjects with OD ± CD, 279 subjects with CD, and 207 controls). Single-marker analyses provided nominally significant evidence for associations of 24 SNPs) in DRD1, ANKK1/DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, DDC, COMT and CSNK1E. A DRD2 7-SNPs haplotype that includes SNPs rs1075650 and rs2283265, which were shown to alter D2S/D2L splicing, was indicated in both addictions. The Met allele of the functional COMT Val158Met was associated with protection from OD. None of the signals remained significant after correction for multiple testing. The study results are in accordance with the results of previous studies, including our report of association of DRD1 SNP rs5326 with OD. The findings suggest the presence of an overlap in genetic susceptibility for OD and CD, as well as shared and distinct susceptibility for OD in subjects of African and European descent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.Annals of Human Genetics 02/2015; 79(3). DOI:10.1111/ahg.12104 · 1.93 Impact Factor