Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines.

Barcelona, Spain.
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.64). 01/2013; 9(3). DOI: 10.4161/hv.23266
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 6,661 cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global incidence per 10 ( 5) inhabitants per year was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20-17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43-1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ≤ 2 y and 2-4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000habitants-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000habitants-year) and the ≤ 2 y and ≥ 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000habitants-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ≥ 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The introduction of conjugated anti-pneumonia vaccines has led to a change in the epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to describe the trends in IPD in the Community of Valencia during the period 2007-2012. Material and methods: A retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study was conducted on IPD in the Community of Valencia during the period 2007-2012, The information sources used were the Epidemiological Surveillance Analysis (Analisis de la Vigilancia Epidemiologica (AVE)) and the Valencian Microbiology Network (Red Microbiologica Valenciana (RedMIVA)) of the Valencia Health Department. Results: The incidence of IPD decreased between 2007 and 2012 in all age groups, mainly in the under 5 year-olds, dropping from 30.5 cases to 12.3 cases per 105 inhabitants (p<.001). Pneumonia was the principal presentation of the disease, with a decrease in its rates from 6.9 to 4.1 cases per 105 inhabitants (p<.001). A gradual, non-significant, reduction from 26% to 12% (p=.23) was observed in the proportion of cases due to the serotypes contained in the heptavalent vaccine (PCV7), mainly in the under 5 year-olds. The cases due to additional serotypes in 13-valent conjugated vaccine (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A) also showed a decreasing trend, mainly in vaccinated under 5 year-olds (52.6% vs 14.3%; p=.03), while the cases due to non-vaccine serotypes significantly increased from 42.3% to 56.7% in the general population (p=.002), and from 47.4% to 78.6% in vaccinated under 5 year-olds (p=.08). Conclusions: The results of this study show a reduction in the incidence of IPD, with a decrease in the proportion of cases produced by vaccine serotypes, and an increase in the proportion of those not vaccinated. Epidemiological Surveillance is necessary to monitor the trends in the disease.
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