The Cure for Cholera - Improving Access to Safe Water and Sanitation
ABSTRACT Whenever epidemics of cholera occur, the global public health community is energized. Experts meet, guidelines for control are reviewed and reissued, and new and modified interventions are proposed and promoted. In the past two decades, these things happened after cholera appeared in Latin America in 1991, in the wake of the Rwandan genocide and the ensuing refugee crisis in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1994, in Zimbabwe in 2008, and in October 2010, at the onset of the ongoing epidemic in Haiti (see article by Barzilay et al.). But even when it is not covered in the news . . .
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ABSTRACT: In 2010, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was newly introduced to Haiti. Because resources are limited, decision-makers need to understand the effect of different preventive interventions. We built a static model to estimate the potential number of cholera cases averted through improvements in coverage in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (i.e., latrines, point-of-use chlorination, and piped water), oral cholera vaccine (OCV), or a combination of both. We allowed indirect effects and non-linear relationships between effect and population coverage. Because there are limited incidence data for endemic cholera in Haiti, we estimated the incidence of cholera over 20 years in Haiti by using data from Malawi. Over the next two decades, scalable WASH interventions could avert 57,949-78,567 cholera cases, OCV could avert 38,569-77,636 cases, and interventions that combined WASH and OCV could avert 71,586-88,974 cases. Rate of implementation is the most influential variable, and combined approaches maximized the effect.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2013; 89(4):633-640. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0201 · 2.74 Impact Factor
Article: Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2013; 89(4):671-681. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0171 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholera, previously unrecognized in Haiti, spread through the country in the fall of 2010. An analysis was performed to understand the epidemiological characteristics, clinical management, and risk factors for disease severity in a population seen at the GHESKIO Cholera Treatment Center in Port-au-Prince. A comprehensive review of the medical records of patients admitted during the period of October 28, 2010-July 10, 2011 was conducted. Disease severity on admission was directly correlated with older age, more prolonged length of stay, and presentation during the two epidemic waves seen in the observation period. Although there was a high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severity of cholera was not greater with HIV infection. This study documents the correlation of cholera waves with rainfall and its reduction in settings with improved sanitary conditions and potable water when newly introduced cholera affects all ages equally so that interventions must be directed throughout the population.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2013; 89(4):625-632. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0170 · 2.74 Impact Factor