Technical tips: performing EEGs and polysomnograms on children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.
ABSTRACT Electroencephalograms (EEGs) and polysomnograms (PSGs) are critical and frequently ordered tests in the care of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD). Performing studies with this population can be very intimidating, given that the referral reasons and seizure types can be unique, and children with NDD may have any combination of behavioral or sensory challenges that can make it difficult to successfully complete a study. This article presents a variety of strategies that can be used to overcome these challenges through good preparation, patience, caregiver involvement, effective behavioral management techniques, and education about the medical aspects of EEG/ PSG in NDD. This Technical Tips article features ideas and experiences from an EEG/PSG technologist, two board-certified child neurologists (one who is further certified in Clinical Neurophysiology, while the other is further certified in Sleep Medicine), and two behaviorally trained pediatric psychologists.
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 04/2013; 55(7). DOI:10.1111/dmcn.12165 · 2.68 Impact Factor
Article: Sleep, epilepsy, and autism.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review article is to explore the links between sleep and epilepsy and the treatment of sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epilepsy and sleep have bidirectional relationships, and problems with both are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Literature is reviewed to support the view that sleep is particularly important to address in the context of ASD. Identification and management of sleep disorders may improve seizure control and challenging behaviors. In closing, special considerations for evaluating and treating sleep disorders in children with ASD and epilepsy are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Epilepsy & Behavior 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.09.081 · 2.06 Impact Factor
Article: Sedation alternatives.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: "The need for sedation can be decreased greatly by adequate preparation and by creating a less threatening, child friendly environment in which to perform the study" (Olson et al. 2001). In 2006, Bild encouraged the avoidance of sedation during EEG and provided several helpful ideas in his ASET News article "Alternatives to Sedation in the EEG Lab" (Bild 2006). In this article Bild states, "We recently discontinued the use of sedation in our lab and we were probably one of the last holdouts using chloral hydrate" (Bild 2006). Several years later chloral hydrate is still a common method of sedating children for EEG studies. This article will encourage exploration and utilization of sedation alternatives, and discourage the use of sedatives for neurophysiological testing. This article is based on a review of EEG lab websites, a literature review, and over a decade of experience as a neurophysiology technologist at multiple institutions.