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Estudio descriptivo de los vórtices atmosféricos causantes de tornados en Venezuela

revista de climatologia 01/2012; 12(1):49-60.

ABSTRACT Resumen Los tornados y trombas marinas son fenómenos comunes en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. La ocurrencia de estos torbellinos en la atmósfera es debida a inestabilidades y fluctuaciones locales. Desde el punto vista de la Física Atmosférica son de interés los mecanismos físicos que intervienen en la atmósfera a microescala. Se discute la fundamentación microfísica de estos eventos atmosféricos en el país y se establece una síntesis fenomenológica y el modelo estándar de las trombas marinas observadas en el Lago de Valencia, Lago de Maracaibo y en otras regiones de Venezuela. Mediante la aplicación de la técnica de fotometría se realiza un análisis exploratorio de las imágenes para extraer los órdenes de magnitud de las características físicas de los vórtices causantes de las trombas marinas y tornados tropicales. Abstract Tornadoes and waterspouts are common phenomena in tropical and subtropical zones. The occurrence of these vortex in the atmosphere is due to instabilities and local fluctuations. The intervening physical mechanisms are of interest from the viewpoint of Atmospheric Physics. The relationship of micro-physics with these atmospheric events in the country is discussed, and a phenomenological synthesis and standard model of the marine whirlwinds observed in Lake Valencia, Lake Maracaibo, and other regions of Venezuela is established. The photometry tech-nique is applied to existing images in an exploratory analysis to extract the orders of magnitudes of the physical characteristics of the vortexes causing tropical waterspouts and tornadoes.

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    ABSTRACT: In the Balearic Islands, located in the Western Mediterranean, 27 tornadoes and 54 waterspouts have been recorded during the period 1989-1999. A climatology focusing, which focuses on path length, F-scale velocity, season and time of occurrence, is presented. September and October appear to be the months with the highest frequency of appearance. The environment in which thunderstorm producing tornadoes and waterspouts developed has been analysed. Main thermodynamic stability indices reveal that no specific conditions are required for the tornado and waterspout genesis. It is also found that these events form in air masses colder than that indicated by the climatology of the region. Analyses of helicity and CAFE demonstrate that, in most of the cases, the environments were not favourable for mesocyclone formation and supercell development.
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