Consistency and Timing of Marital Transitions and Survival During Midlife: the Role of Personality and Health Risk Behaviors.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Marital status is associated with survival. PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to evaluate marital history and timing on mortality during midlife, test the role of pre-marital personality, and quantify the role of health risk behaviors. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were run with varying classifications of marital history and sets of covariates. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models compared to the currently married, lifetime marital history predicts premature mortality with never married at 2.33 times risk of death and ever married at 1.64 risk of death. Midlife marital history shows that not having a partner during midlife (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.10 formerly married; HR = 2.59 remaining single) has the highest risk of death. Controlling for personality and health risk behaviors reduces but does not eliminate the impact of marital status. CONCLUSION: Consistency of marital status during midlife suggests that lack of a partner is associated with midlife mortality.
- SourceAvailable from: Paul Costa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mixed models were used to examine NEO-PI scores as predictors of body mass index (BMI) over a 14 year period during midlife. Average BMI levels during midlife were positively related to Neuroticism and negatively related to Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Relations for three domains were modified by gender. Neuroticism was significantly related to BMI in females only. Extraversion was positively related to BMI in males, whereas, this relation was non-significant in females. The relation between Conscientiousness and BMI was significant in males and females, however, the magnitude of the negative association was stronger in females. Conscientiousness also predicted change in BMI during midlife such that participants who were lower in Conscientiousness tended to show larger gains in BMI with age.Journal of Research in Personality 06/2006; · 2.00 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article develops a series of hypotheses about the long-term effects of one's history of marriage, divorce, and widowhood on health, and it tests those hypotheses using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We examine four dimensions of health at mid-life: chronic conditions, mobility limitations, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms. We find that the experience of marital disruption damages health, with the effects still evident years later; among the currently married, those who have ever been divorced show worse health on all dimensions. Both the divorced and widowed who do not remarry show worse health than the currently married on all dimensions. Dimensions of health that seem to develop slowly, such as chronic conditions and mobility limitations, show strong effects of past marital disruption, whereas others, such as depressive symptoms, seem more sensitive to current marital status. Those who spent more years divorced or widowed show more chronic conditions and mobility limitations.Journal of Health and Social Behavior 10/2009; 50(3):344-58. · 2.72 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Epidemiology 06/1983; 117(5):521-37. · 4.98 Impact Factor