2. Momentary Assessment of Social Context and Adherence in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between momentary social context and glucose monitoring adherence in adolescents with type 1diabetes (T1D). METHODS: For 14 days, patients (14-18 years old, T1D duration >1 year) of a pediatric diabetes clinic carried handheld computers that prompted them to report their location, companionship, and attitudes toward companions at the times they usually checked their glucose, and again 30 minutes later to report whether they checked their glucose and, if not, why. Associations between social context factors and checking glucose (adherence) were analyzed using logistic generalized estimating equations and adjusted for age, sex, duration of T1D, and pump use. RESULTS: Thirty-six participants (mean age 16.6 ± 1.5 years, mean duration of T1D 8.7 ± 4.4 years) completed 971 context and 1,210 adherence reports, resulting in 805 paired reports. Median signal response rate was 63%. The odds of checking glucose was higher when participants expressed very strong desire to blend in (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.07-4.94, p = .03). Strong desire to impress others was associated with decreased likelihood of checking glucose (AOR = .52, 95% confidence interval .28-.97, p = .04.) Location, solitude, type of companion, and attitudes toward companions were not significantly associated with checking glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Desire to blend in may support glucose monitoring adherence and desire to impress others may impede this behavior in adolescents with T1D. Other dimensions of social context were not linked to checking glucose in this study.
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ABSTRACT: Cell phone text messaging, via the Short Messaging Service (SMS), offers the promise of a highly portable, well-accepted, and inexpensive modality for engaging youth and young adults in the management of their diabetes. This pilot and feasibility study compared two-way SMS cell phone messaging with e-mail reminders that were directed at encouraging blood glucose (BG) monitoring. Forty insulin-treated adolescents and young adults with diabetes were randomized to receive electronic reminders to check their BG levels via cell phone text messaging or e-mail reminders for a 3-month pilot study. Electronic messages were automatically generated, and participant replies with BG results were processed by the locally developed Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes System (CARDS). Participants set their schedule for reminders on the secure CARDS website where they could also enter and review BG data. Of the 40 participants, 22 were randomized to receive cell phone text message reminders and 18 to receive e-mail reminders; 18 in the cell phone group and 11 in the e-mail group used the system. Compared to the e-mail group, users in the cell phone group received more reminders (180.4 vs. 106.6 per user) and responded with BG results significantly more often (30.0 vs. 6.9 per user, P = 0.04). During the first month cell phone users submitted twice as many BGs as e-mail users (27.2 vs. 13.8 per user); by month 3, usage waned. Cell phone text messaging to promote BG monitoring is a viable and acceptable option in adolescents and young adults with diabetes. However, maintaining interest levels for prolonged intervals remains a challenge.Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 02/2009; 11(2):99-106. DOI:10.1089/dia.2008.0022 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is the third most common chronic disease in the pediatric population and diabetes management in adolescents presents a unique challenge for health care providers. The purpose of this article is to define telemedicine, review a variety of telemedicine intervention studies in the adolescent population, and interpret those results in the context of the current health care climate. Clinicians and researchers will be provided with education related to adolescent needs and telemedicine interventions so that telemedicine can be used effectively to promote the health of adolescents with diabetes. Because telemedicine has yet to demonstrate consistent and significant positive outcomes in this population, further research and continued development of technology are essential to improve diabetes control in adolescents and prevent the long-term complications of this disease.Western Journal of Nursing Research 04/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1177/0193945914528387 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To examine whether friendship and romantic relationships of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes differed from those of a comparison group, and to determine whether these relationships were associated with psychological and diabetes health outcomes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 122) and without (n = 118) type 1 diabetes were assessed annually for 3 years. Friend and romantic relationship variables, psychological distress, life satisfaction, eating disturbances, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes were assessed. Results Those with diabetes reported less friend support but similar friend conflict compared with controls. Aspects of romantic relationships and friend relationships were associated with health outcomes, but there were more effects involving romantic relationships. On some indices, romantic support was more beneficial for controls and romantic conflict was more troublesome for those with diabetes. Conclusions Both friendship and romantic relationships were associated with psychological and diabetes outcomes among emerging adults.Journal of Pediatric Psychology 08/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu069 · 2.91 Impact Factor