Cdc42 interacts with the exocyst complex to promote phagocytosis

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and 2 Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.83). 01/2013; 200(1):81-93. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201204090
Source: PubMed


The process of phagocytosis in multicellular organisms is required for homeostasis, clearance of foreign particles, and establishment of long-term immunity, yet the molecular determinants of uptake are not well characterized. Cdc42, a Rho guanosine triphosphatase, is thought to orchestrate critical actin remodeling events needed for internalization. In this paper, we show that Cdc42 controls exocytic events during phagosome formation. Cdc42 inactivation led to a selective defect in large particle phagocytosis as well as a general decrease in the rate of membrane flow to the cell surface. Supporting the connection between Cdc42 and exocytic function, we found that the overproduction of a regulator of exocytosis, Rab11, rescued the large particle uptake defect in the absence of Cdc42. Additionally, we demonstrated a temporal interaction between Cdc42 and the exocyst complex during large particle uptake. Furthermore, disruption of exocyst function through Exo70 depletion led to a defect in large particle internalization, thereby establishing a functional role for the exocyst complex during phagocytosis.

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    • "The exocyst is also essential for large-particle phagocytosis (Mohammadi and Isberg, 2013), Salmonella invasion into host cells (Nichols and Casanova, 2010) and formation of tunneling nanotubes – recently discovered structures connecting cytoplasm of animal cells (Ohno et al., 2010; Mukerji et al., 2012; Schiller et al., 2013). Each of these events could combine all three mechanisms mentioned above. "
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    ABSTRACT: Delivery and final fusion of the secretory vesicles with the relevant target membrane are hierarchically organized and reciprocally interconnected multi-step processes involving not only specific protein-protein interactions, but also specific protein-phospholipid interactions. The exocyst was discovered as a tethering complex mediating initial encounter of arriving exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. The exocyst complex is regulated by Rab and Rho small GTPases, resulting in docking of exocytic vesicles to the plasma membrane (PM) and finally their fusion mediated by specific SNARE complexes. In model Opisthokont cells, the exocyst was shown to directly interact with both microtubule and microfilament cytoskeleton and related motor proteins as well as with the PM via phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate specific binding, which directly affects cortical cytoskeleton and PM dynamics. Here we summarize the current knowledge on exocyst-cytoskeleton-PM interactions in order to open a perspective for future research in this area in plant cells.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2014; 4:543. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00543 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "In mammals, GTP-Ral binds to the exocyst components Sec5 and Exo84 [66,67] and Ral depletion reduces the assembly of the complete exocyst complex [68]. Recently, a TC10 depletion experiment in 293T cells indicated that Exo70 is required for maintaining the integrity of the exocyst complex [41], although the precise mechanism for this is unknown. We think that the present work has provided a clue to unveil the mechanism linking TC10 activity and exocyst integrity, which regulates vesicle fusion. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of exocytosis for membrane expansion at nerve growth cones is critical for neurite outgrowth. TC10 is a Rho family GTPase that is essential for specific types of vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane. Recent studies have shown that TC10 and its effector Exo70, a component of the exocyst tethering complex, contribute to neurite outgrowth. However, the molecular mechanisms of the neuritogenesis-promoting functions of TC10 remain to be established. Here, we propose that GTP hydrolysis of vesicular TC10 near the plasma membrane promotes neurite outgrowth by accelerating vesicle fusion by releasing Exo70. Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, we show that TC10 activity at the plasma membrane decreased at extending growth cones in hippocampal neurons and nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells. In neuronal cells, TC10 activity at vesicles was higher than its activity at the plasma membrane, and TC10-positive vesicles were found to fuse to the plasma membrane in NGF-treated PC12 cells. Therefore, activity of TC10 at vesicles is presumed to be inactivated near the plasma membrane during neuronal exocytosis. Our model is supported by functional evidence that constitutively active TC10 could not rescue decrease in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth induced by TC10 depletion. Furthermore, TC10 knockdown experiments and colocalization analyses confirmed the involvement of Exo70 in TC10-mediated trafficking in neuronal cells. TC10 frequently resided on vesicles containing Rab11, which is a key regulator of recycling pathways and implicated in neurite outgrowth. In growth cones, most of the vesicles containing the cell adhesion molecule L1 had TC10. Exocytosis of Rab11- and L1-positive vesicles may play a central role in TC10-mediated neurite outgrowth. The combination of this study and our previous work on the role of TC10 in EGF-induced exocytosis in HeLa cells suggests that the signaling machinery containing TC10 proposed here may be broadly used for exocytosis.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79689. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079689 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid clearance of dying cells is important for the well-being of multicellular organisms. In C. elegans, cell corpse removal is mainly mediated by three parallel engulfment signaling cascades. These pathways include two small GTPases, MIG-2/RhoG and CED-10/Rac1. Here we present the identification and characterization of CDC-42 as a third GTPase involved in the regulation of cell corpse clearance. Genetic analyses performed by both loss of cdc-42 function and cdc-42 overexpression place cdc-42 in parallel to the ced-2/5/12 signaling module, in parallel to or upstream of the ced-10 module, and downstream of the ced-1/6/7 module. CDC-42 accumulates in engulfing cells at membranes surrounding apoptotic corpses. The formation of such halos depends on the integrins PAT-2/PAT-3, UNC-112 and the GEF protein UIG-1, but not on the canonical ced-1/6/7 or ced-2/5/12 signaling modules. Together, our results suggest that the small GTPase CDC-42 regulates apoptotic cell engulfment possibly upstream of the canonical Rac GTPase CED-10, by polarizing the engulfing cell toward the apoptotic corpse in response to integrin signaling and ced-1/6/7 signaling in C. elegans.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 14 March 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.23.
    Cell death and differentiation 03/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.23 · 8.18 Impact Factor
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