The Seed and the Soil Optimizing Stem Cells and Their Environment for Tissue Regeneration
ABSTRACT The potential for stem cells to serve as cellular building blocks for reconstruction of complex defects has prompted significant enthusiasm in the field of regenerative medicine. Clinical application, however, is still limited, as implantation of cells into hostile wound environments may greatly hinder their tissue forming capacity. To circumvent this obstacle, novel approaches have been developed to manipulate both the stem cell itself and its surrounding environmental niche. By understanding this paradigm of seed and soil optimization, innovative strategies may thus be developed to harness the true promise of stem cells for tissue regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: In this article, the authors investigated whether the prefabrication of an autologous pedicled flap by isolation from the surrounding with artificial skin substitutes would increase mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeding. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cords and were cultured and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Oxacarbocyanine and its green fluorescence emission were used to label the MSCs population.Sixteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 4 groups (n = 4 animals per group). In group 1, a prefabricated groin flap (GF) with skin substitutes was harvested without cell injection; in group 2, 1 million MSCs were injected subcutaneously in the area corresponding to the GF without flap harvesting; in Group 3, a prefabricated GF with skin substitutes was harvested and 1 million MSCs were injected subcutaneously; and in Group 4, a prefabricated GF with skin substitutes was harvested and 2 million MSCs were injected subcutaneously. All procedures were performed bilaterally in each animal. Animals were sacrificed 2 weeks after the surgery. Flap viability was then assessed by clinical inspection and histology, and seeding of MSCs was observed. All flaps survived 2 weeks after the surgery. Oxacarbocyanine-labeled cells were found in all prefabricated flaps injected (Groups 3 and 4) in higher number in comparison with the group where subcutaneous injection without flap harvesting was performed (Group 2). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Prefabricated skin flaps with skin substitutes may provide a useful vehicle for the implantation of MSCs to serve as an autologous microvascular bioscaffold.Annals of plastic surgery 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000074 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell-based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development.Journal of Dental Research 08/2014; 93(12). DOI:10.1177/0022034514547271 · 4.14 Impact Factor