Sustained improvements in handwashing indicators more than 5years after a cluster-randomised, community-based trial of handwashing promotion in Karachi, Pakistan

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Tropical Medicine & International Health (Impact Factor: 2.33). 01/2013; 18(3). DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12046
Source: PubMed


To evaluate handwashing behaviour 5 years after a handwashing intervention in Karachi, Pakistan.

In 2003, we randomised neighbourhoods to control, handwashing promotion, or handwashing promotion and water treatment. Intervention households were given soap +/- water treatment product and weekly handwashing education for 9 months. In 2009, we re-enrolled 461 households from the three study groups: control (160), handwashing (141), and handwashing + water treatment (160) and assessed hygiene-related outcomes, accounting for clustering.

Intervention households were 3.4 times more likely than controls to have soap at their handwashing stations during the study visit [293/301 (97%) vs. 45/159 (28%), P < 0.0001]. While nearly all households reported handwashing after toileting, intervention households more commonly reported handwashing before cooking [relative risk (RR) 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.4)] and before meals [RR 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.1)]. Control households cited a mean of 3.87 occasions for washing hands; handwashing households, 4.74 occasions; and handwashing + water treatment households, 4.78 occasions (P < 0.0001). Households reported purchasing a mean of 0.65 (control), 0.91 (handwashing) and 1.1 (handwashing + water treatment) bars of soap/person/month (P < 0.0001).

Five years after receiving handwashing promotion, intervention households were more likely to have soap at the household handwashing station, know key times to wash hands and report purchasing more soap than controls, suggesting habituation of improved handwashing practices in this population. Intensive handwashing promotion may be an effective strategy for habituating hygiene behaviours and improving health.

Download full-text


Available from: Tracy L Ayers, Oct 31, 2014
27 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, early childhood infectious diarrhea continues to be a significant concern. Diarrheal illness affects the world's youngest and most vulnerable citizens disproportionately. Estimates are that over 70 % of deaths from diarrhea occur in people younger than 24 months of age. Diarrhea and environmental enteropathy have been associated with growth failure and stunting. In addition, the burden of enteric disease also leads to cognitive and academic losses, thus resulting in loss of human capital and economic productivity. While considerable progress has been made on preventing and treating childhood diarrheal illness, the mortality and morbidity still remain unacceptably high. This paper reviews recent (mainly from 2013) publications surrounding the global burden of childhood diarrhea and the implications for long-term sequelae.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 06/2014; 16(6):408. DOI:10.1007/s11908-014-0408-y · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 02/2015; 12(3):2392-2410. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120302392 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives: To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria: Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results: We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence).Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence).Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence).We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Authors' conclusions: Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 09/2015; 9:CD004265. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004265.pub3 · 6.03 Impact Factor