The high-affinity human IgG receptor Fc RI (CD64) promotes IgG-mediated inflammation, anaphylaxis, and antitumor immunotherapy
ABSTRACT IgG receptors (FcγRs) are mandatory for the induction of various IgG-dependent models of autoimmunity, inflammation, anaphylaxis and cancer immunotherapy. A few FcγRs have the ability to bind monomeric IgG, i.e. high-affinity mouse mFcγRI, mFcγRIV and human hFcγRI, whereas all others bind IgG only when aggregated, in complexes or bound to cells or surfaces, i.e. low-affinity mouse mFcγRIIB, mFcγRIII and human hFcγRIIA/B/C and hFcγRIIIA/B. Although it was proposed that high-affinity FcγRs are occupied by circulating IgG, multiple roles for mFcγRI and mFcγRIV have been reported in vivo. The potential roles of hFcγRI that is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils, have however not been reported. We therefore investigated the role of hFcγRI in antibody-mediated models of disease and therapy by generating hFcγRI-transgenic mice deficient for multiple endogenous FcRs. hFcγRI was sufficient to trigger autoimmune arthritis and thrombocytopenia, immune complex-induced airway inflammation, active and passive systemic anaphylaxis. We identified monocyte/macrophages to be responsible for thrombocytopenia, neutrophils to be responsible for systemic anaphylaxis, and both cell types to be responsible for arthritis induction. Finally, hFcγRI was capable of mediating antibody-induced immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma. Altogether, our results unravel novel capabilities of human FcγRI that confirm the role of high-affinity IgG receptors in vivo.
SourceAvailable from: Christine A Petersen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with Leishmania amazonensis leads to chronic lesions accompanied by large parasite loads. Co-infecting these animals with L. major leads to induction of an effective Th1 immune response that can resolve these lesions. This cross-protection can be recapitulated in vitro by using immune cells from L. major-infected animals to effectively activate L. amazonensis-infected macrophages to kill the parasite. We have shown previously that the B cell population and their IgG2a antibodies are required for effective cross-protection. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to L. major, killing L. amazonensis parasites is dependent upon FcRγ common-chain and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide from infected macrophages. Superoxide production coincided with killing of L. amazonensis at five days post-activation, suggesting that opsonization of the parasites was not a likely mechanism of the antibody response. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that non-specific immune complexes could provide a mechanism of FcRγ common-chain/NADPH oxidase dependent parasite killing. Macrophage activation in response to soluble IgG2a immune complexes, IFN-γ and parasite antigen was effective in significantly reducing the percentage of macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. These results define a host protection mechanism effective during Leishmania infection and demonstrate for the first time a novel means by which IgG antibodies can enhance killing of an intracellular pathogen.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106426. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106426 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The IgG1 Fc is a dimeric protein that mediates important antibody effector functions by interacting with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Here, we report the discovery of a monomeric IgG1 Fc (mFc) that bound to FcγRI with very high affinity, but not to FcγRIIIa, in contrast to wild-type (dimeric) Fc. The binding of mFc to FcRn was the same as that of dimeric Fc. To test whether the high-affinity binding to FcγRI can be used for targeting of toxins, a fusion protein of mFc with a 38 kDa Pseudomonas exotoxin A fragment (PE38), was generated. This fusion protein killed FcγRI-positive macrophage-like U937 cells but not FcγRI-negative cells, and mFc or PE38 alone had no killing activity. The lack of binding to FcγRIIIa resulted in the absence of Fc-mediated cytotoxicity of a scFv-mFc fusion protein targeting mesothelin. The pharmacokinetics of mFc in mice was very similar to that of dimeric Fc. The mFc's unique FcγRs binding pattern and related functionality, combined with its small size, monovalency and the preservation of FcRn binding which results in relatively long half-life in vivo, suggests that mFc has great potential as a component of therapeutics targeting inflammation mediated by activated macrophages overexpressing FcγRI and related diseases, including cancer.mAbs 09/2014; 6(5):1201-10. DOI:10.4161/mabs.29835 · 4.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in many inflammatory diseases. Soluble TNF can be neutralized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and this is a widely-used therapeutic approach. However, some patients do not respond to anti-TNF therapy due to the increased expression of CD64 on monocytes and macrophages. A recent study has shown that CD64 captures anti-TNF mAbs via their Fcγ domain, which induces the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Specific blocking of CD64 could therefore be a promising strategy to improve the response to anti-TNF therapy. We used the CD64-specific antibody fragment H22(scFv) and tested its activity against the human CD64(+) cell line HL-60. When stimulated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ), these cells represent a pro-inflammatory phenotype of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We found that H22(scFv) binds selectively to and blocks CD64, preventing the capture of anti-TNF mAb. Importantly, H22(scFv) itself does not induce CD64 activation. We also found that transmembrane TNF on HL-60 cells stimulated with IFN-γ also contributes to the capture of anti-TNF mAb, although via their Fab domain. In conclusion, the specific blocking of CD64 by H22(scFv) could be used a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism for potentiating the effect of anti-TNF antibodies.mAbs 09/2014; 6(5):1283-9. DOI:10.4161/mabs.32182 · 4.73 Impact Factor