Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Salford, M6 8HD, UK, .
This review focuses on new findings and developments relevant to the clinician caring for patients with primary and secondary [especially systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related] Raynaud phenomenon (RP). In the last 18 months, several clinical trials and observational studies of RP and of SSc-related digital ulceration have been published, reflecting increased awareness of disease burden and increased interest by pharmaceutical companies: new insights into pathophysiology are driving new approaches to treatment. Key developments are the increased use of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in severe RP, and of bosentan (an endothelin-1 receptor antagonist) for prevention of recurrent SSc-related digital ulcers. Other treatments being researched include topical glyceryl trinitrate (applied locally to the digits), botulinum toxin (for severe digital ischemia/ulceration), and several other drugs including oral prostanoids. Increased availability and interest in nailfold capillaroscopy, by facilitating early diagnosis of SSc, should pave the way for studies of early intervention and vascular protection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the mechanism is unknown, botulinum toxin type A injection may be an effective, localized, nonsurgical treatment option without addictive properties or systemic side effects for the treatment of ischemic digits. Clinical research supports the safety and efficacy of injection of botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon.
Hand clinics 02/2014; 30(1):17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.hcl.2013.09.006 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capillaroscopy is a method for evaluating morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries. The simplicity, noninvasiveness and easiness-to-perform make the method accessible in everyday rheumatological practice. Raynaud's phenomenon is the main indication for performing capillaroscopy (differentiating between primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon) and diagnosing early stages of systemic sclerosis. According to some authors capillaroscopy should be included in the work-up algorithm for patients with puffy fingers and Raynaud's phenomenon. Other autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, antiphospholipid syndrome and other diseases which affect microvasculature - diabetes mellitus, thromboangiitis obliterans) can have some abnormalities of the capillaroscopic pattern. We present the results of the capillaroscopies performed in our center during the period of one year.
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