Innate lymphoid cells: How did we miss them?

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, UK.
Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 34.99). 01/2013; 13(2). DOI: 10.1038/nri3349
Source: PubMed


Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are newly identified members of the lymphoid lineage that have emerging roles in mediating immune responses and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the various ILC lineages that have been identified to date and summarize their functions in protective immunity to infection and their pathological roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases.

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    • "In the course of allergic inflammation, in addition to mast cells and eosinophils, other inflammatory cells such as basophils, neutrophils , Th-2 and CD8 รพ lymphocytes, invariant natural killer (iNK) cells and the more recently described innate lymphoid cells ILC2 (Walker et al., 2013) can possibly interact to regulate the allergic inflammation reaction. Nevertheless, mast cells and eosinophils are the key effector cells due to their characteristic preformed mediators and their capacity to produce and release several other mediators that are mainly responsible for the symptoms of allergic diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cells are mostly known for their role in allergic diseases although in recent years it has become clear that they have a role in other diseases and in the body's defense against microbes. In most cases, but especially in allergy, eosinophils are present in the tissue within proximity of mast cells. Due to this spatio-temporal correlation we and others have postulated and described a crosstalk between these two cells, mediated via their released mediators and physical interactions, that is able to modulate each other's function and ultimately the outcome of the allergic inflammatory reaction. This review will focus on the functional unit between mast cells and eosinophils that we have named the "Allergic Effector Unit" and specifically highlight its role in allergy.
    European journal of pharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.10.036 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "They have been implicated in host defense against microbial pathogens, including bacteria and parasites. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), which are characterized by the production of a range of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and expression of GATA3, exert type 2 immunity that is critical for protective immunity, allergy, and tissue formation (Walker et al., 2013). In addition, group 3 ILCs comprise ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer T (LTi) cells that mainly produce IL-17 and/or IL-22 and are dependent on RORt. "
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    ABSTRACT: Natural Killer (NK) cells constitute a major subset of innate lymphoid cells that do not express the T- and B-cell receptors and play an important role in antimicrobial defense. NK cells not only induce early and rapid innate immune responses, but also communicate with dendritic cells to shape the adaptive immunity, thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Although the functional biology of NK cells is well-documented in a variety of infections in humans and mice, their role in protecting domestic animals from infectious agents is only beginning to be understood. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge about the contribution of NK cells in pathogen defense in domestic animals, especially cattle and pigs. Understanding the immunobiology of NK cells will translate into strategies to manipulate these cells for preventive and therapeutic purposes.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2015; 168(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.10.001 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    • "These cytokines include TSLP, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-9, all classical Th2 polarizing cytokines, and all cytokines that significantly affect the development of pulmonary inflammation. Interestingly, this same population is capable of producing these same Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13) in response to mice infected with helminthes, promoting an eosinophilic gut response and enhanced mucus production [85]. These derived innate lymphoid cells resemble Th2 polarized CD4 T cells but do not express an antigen specific receptor [86] [87] [88]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness with every allergen exposure. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a multifaceted syndrome that results from a variety of biologic mechanisms. Asthma is further problematic given that the disease consists of many variants, each with its own etiologic and pathophysiologic factors, including different cellular responses and inflammatory phenotypes. These facets make the rapid and accurate diagnosis (not to mention treatments) of asthma extremely difficult. Protein biomarkers can serve as powerful detection tools in both clinical and basic research applications. Recent endeavors from biomedical researchers have developed technical platforms, such as cytokine antibody arrays, that have been employed and used to further the global analysis of asthma biomarker studies. In this review, we discuss potential asthma biomarkers involved in the pathophysiologic process and eventual pathogenesis of asthma, how these biomarkers are being utilized, and how further testing methods might help improve the diagnosis and treatment strain that current asthma patients suffer.
    07/2015; 2015(Article ID, 630637). DOI:10.1155/2015/630637
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