Innate lymphoid cells - how did we miss them?
ABSTRACT Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are newly identified members of the lymphoid lineage that have emerging roles in mediating immune responses and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the various ILC lineages that have been identified to date and summarize their functions in protective immunity to infection and their pathological roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity has become one of the main threats to health worldwide and therefore gained increasing clinical and economic significance as well as scientific attention. General adipose-tissue accumulation in obesity is associated with systemically increased pro-inflammatory mediators and humoral and cellular changes within this compartment. These adipose-tissue changes and their systemic consequences led to the concept of obesity as a chronic inflammatory state. A pathognomonic feature of Crohn's disease (CD) is creeping fat (CF), a locally restricted hyperplasia of the mesenteric fat adjacent to the inflamed segments of the intestine. The precise role of this adipose-tissue and its mediators remains controversial, and ongoing work will have to define whether this compartment is protecting from or contributing to disease activity. This review aims to outline specific cellular changes within the adipose-tissue, occurring in either obesity or CF. Hence the potential impact of adipocytes and resident immune cells from the innate and adaptive immune system will be discussed for both diseases. The second part focuses on the impact of generalized adipose-tissue accumulation in obesity, respectively on the locally restricted form in CD, on intestinal inflammation and on the closely related integrity of the mucosal barrier.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:462.
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ABSTRACT: Eosinophilia is a feature of the host immune response that distinguishes parasitic worms from other pathogens, yet a discrete function for eosinophils in worm infection has been elusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the striking and unexpected observation that eosinophils protect intracellular, muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis larvae against NO-mediated killing. Our findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. Early recruitment is essential for larval survival. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10(+) myeloid dendritic cells and CD4(+) IL-10(+) T lymphocytes that inhibit inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protect intracellular larvae. The results document a novel immunoregulatory function of eosinophils in helminth infection, in which eosinophil-derived IL-10 drives immune responses that eventually limit local NO production. In this way, the parasite co-opts an immune response in a way that enhances its own survival.The Journal of Immunology 09/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The small and large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have evolved to have discrete functions with distinct anatomies and immune cell composition. The importance of these differences is underlined when considering that different pathogens have uniquely adapted to live in each region of the gut. Furthermore, different regions of the GIT are also associated with differences in susceptibility to diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. The large and small intestine, given their anatomical and functional differences, should be seen as two separate immunological sites. However, this distinction is often ignored with findings from one area of the GIT being inappropriately extrapolated to the other. Focussing largely on the murine small and large intestine, this review addresses the literature relating to the immunology and biology of the two sites, drawing comparisons between them and clarifying similarities and differences. We also highlight the gaps in our understanding and where further research is needed.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(41):15216-15232.