Innate lymphoid cells - how did we miss them?
ABSTRACT Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are newly identified members of the lymphoid lineage that have emerging roles in mediating immune responses and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the various ILC lineages that have been identified to date and summarize their functions in protective immunity to infection and their pathological roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is caused by Th2-cell-type cytokines in response to allergen exposure. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a newly identified subset of immune cells that, along with Th2 cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma by producing copious amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, which cause eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. ILC2s express ICOS, a T cell costimulatory molecule with a currently unknown function. Here we showed that a lack of ICOS on murine ILC2s and blocking the ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction in human ILC2s reduced AHR and lung inflammation. ILC2s expressed both ICOS and ICOS-ligand, and the ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction promoted cytokine production and survival in ILC2s through STAT5 signaling. Thus, ICOS:ICOS-ligand signaling pathway is critically involved in ILC2 function and homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Immunity 03/2015; 42(3):538-552. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.007 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) through a so-called "stage 3" developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34(-)CD117(+)CD94(-) immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) types that include interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1)-positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here, we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes the differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1(hi) human ILC3s to CD56(bright)CD94(+) interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES) and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET). Hence, we demonstrate the lineage plasticity of human ILCs by identifying AHR as a transcription factor that prevents IL-1R1(hi) ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells.
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ABSTRACT: Newly identified nuocytes or group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in Th2 cell mediated immunity such as protective immune responses to helminth parasites, allergic asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the contributions of ILC2s in the occurrence and development of cancer remain unknown. Our previous study found that there was a predominant Th2 phenotype in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, the ILC2s related genes or molecules in PBMC from patients with gastric cancer were measured, and the potential correlation between them was analyzed. The expression levels of ROR α , GATA3, T1/ST2, IL-17RB, CRTH2, IL-33, IL-5, and IL-4 mRNA were significantly increased in patients, but no significant changes were found in ICOS, CD45, and IL-13 expression, and there was a positive correlation between ROR α or IL-13 and other related factors, such as ICOS and CD45. The increased frequency of ILC2s was also found in PBMC of patients by flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA of Arg1 and iNOS were also significantly increased in patients. These results suggested that there are polarized ILC2s in gastric cancer patients which might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment and closely related to the upregulation of MDSCs and M2 macrophages.Journal of Immunology Research 03/2014; 2014:923135. DOI:10.1155/2014/923135 · 2.93 Impact Factor