Clinical Characteristics, Haemodynamics and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis in a Single Centre, and Meta-Analysis of the Published Data
ABSTRACT Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in sarcoidosis is associated with bad outcomes. Although there is interest in using pulmonary vasodilators (PVs) for PH in sarcoidosis, there are few data to support their use. In this study, a retrospective review of a cohort of patients with PH and sarcoidosis was conducted, focusing on those treated with PVs, and a meta-analysis of published reports indexed in MEDLINE was performed. Twenty-four patients were found. The rate of mortality or transplantation rate was 41.2%. Median survival without transplantation was 5.3 years. More patients who died or underwent transplantation during follow-up had moderate or severe lung fibrosis (66.7% vs 15.4%), had right ventricular dysfunction (80% vs 7.7%), and were in World Health Organization class IV (66.7% vs 30.8%). Body surface areas were lower in patients with events, as was cardiac output. Mortality was not different between patients treated with PVs and those not treated (54.5% vs 38.5%, p = 0.44) despite the treated patients' having more right ventricular dysfunction and worse hemodynamics. In a Cox regression survival model, lower body surface area, right ventricular dysfunction, and the presence of moderate or severe lung fibrosis were predictors of worse outcomes, but not treatment with PVs. PV-treated patients (n = 11) showed improved 6-minute walk distances and decreased N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels during follow-up. There was a trend toward improvement in hemodynamic profile. Four studies plus the data from this study were included in the meta-analysis. Six-minute walk distance improved by 30.64 m after treatment. Hemodynamics improved, with a reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 8.03 mm Hg and a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance of 4.23 Wood units. In conclusion, PH in sarcoidosis is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when accompanied by right ventricular dysfunction and/or moderate or severe lung fibrosis. Treating selected patients can improve hemodynamics and functional parameters.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of sarcoidosis. This review discusses clinical characteristics of patients with sarcoid-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) and pitfalls in the diagnosis, and highlights potential therapies. SAPH is common in patients with advanced disease, but it can occur in patients with minimal disease burden. Risk factors for SAPH include restrictive lung physiology, hypoxemia, advanced Scadding chest X-ray stage, and low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Echocardiogram is a good initial screening tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension, but right heart catheterization is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment with pulmonary vasodilators, including endothelin antagonists, can lead to improvements in pulmonary hemodynamics in some patients but may not improve their exercise capacity. Forced vital capacity is an important predictor of exercise performance in patients with SAPH. Clinical observations and response to specific therapies for pulmonary hypertension suggest the presence of different SAPH phenotypes. Patients who complain of persistent dyspnea should be screened for the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The prognosis of SAPH is poor and it is prudent to consider referral of these patients for lung transplantation. In some patients with SAPH, treatment with anti-inflammatory agents and pulmonary vasodilators can lower pulmonary arterial pressures, improve dyspnea and functionality, and enhance overall quality of life.Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 09/2013; 19(5):531-7. DOI:10.1097/MCP.0b013e328363f4a3 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] <25 mm Hg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP ≥25 mm Hg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP ≥35 mm Hg or mPAP ≥25 mm Hg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0 l/min/m(2)]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2013; 62(25 Suppl):D109-16. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.036 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant complication of sarcoidosis, occurring in approximately 6 to > 20% of cases, and markedly increases mortality among these patients. The clinician should exercise a high index of suspicion for sarcoidosis-associated PH (SAPH) given the nonspecific symptomatology and the limitations of echocardiography in this patient population. The pathophysiology of PH in sarcoidosis is complex and multifactorial. Importantly, there are inherent differences in the pathogenesis of SAPH compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, making the optimal management of SAPH controversial. In this article, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment considerations for SAPH. Lung transplantation (LT) is a viable therapeutic option for sarcoid patients with severe pulmonary fibrocystic sarcoidosis or SAPH refractory to medical therapy. We discuss the role for LT in patients with sarcoidosis, review the global experience with LT in this population, and discuss indications and contraindications to LT.Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2014; 35(3):362-371. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1376863 · 3.02 Impact Factor