Comparative efficacy of tandem autologous versus autologous followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Despite advances in understanding of clinical, genetic, and molecular aspects of multiple myeloma (MM) and availability of more effective therapies, MM remains incurable. The autologous-allogeneic (auto-allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) strategy is based on combining cytoreduction from high-dose (chemo- or chemoradio)-therapy with adoptive immunotherapy. However, conflicting results have been reported when an auto-allo HCT approach is compared to tandem autologous (auto-auto) HCT. A previously published meta-analysis has been reported; however, it suffers from serious methodological flaws.
A systematic search identified 152 publications, of which five studies (enrolling 1538 patients) met inclusion criteria. All studies eligible for inclusion utilized biologic randomization.
Assessing response rates by achievement of at least a very good partial response did not differ among the treatment arms [risk ratio (RR) (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.87-1.09), p = 0.66]; but complete remission was higher in the auto-allo HCT arm [RR = 1.65 (1.25-2.19), p = 0.0005]. Event-free survival did not differ between auto-allo HCT group versus auto-auto HCT group using per-protocol analysis [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78 (0.58-1.05)), p = 0.11] or using intention-to-treat analysis [HR = 0.83 (0.60-1.15), p = 0.26]. Overall survival (OS) did not differ among these treatment arms whether analyzed on per-protocol [HR = 0.88 (0.33-2.35), p = 0.79], or by intention-to-treat [HR = 0.80 (0.48-1.32), p = 0.39] analysis. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was significantly worse with auto-allo HCT [RR (95%CI) = 3.55 (2.17-5.80), p < 0.00001].
Despite higher complete remission rates, there is no improvement in OS with auto-allo HCT; but this approach results in higher NRM in patients with newly diagnosed MM. At present, totality of evidence suggests that an auto-allo HCT approach for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma should not be offered outside the setting of a clinical trial.
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Available from: Zhili Zheng
- "This expression across different cancer histologies makes SSX2 an attractive target that may allow for treatment of patients with different diagnoses using a single clinical grade reagent. Curative treatment options for patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer or multiple myeloma are currently scarce, highlighting the need for novel treatment modalities , . In this context, adoptive immunotherapy targeting SSX2 might have a substantial impact in the clinical management of such diseases. "
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ABSTRACT: The clinical success of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer relies on the selection of target antigens that are highly expressed in tumor cells but absent in essential normal tissues. A group of genes that encode the cancer/testis or cancer germline antigens have been proposed as ideal targets for immunotherapy due to their high expression in multiple cancer types and their restricted expression in immunoprivileged normal tissues. In the present work we report the isolation and characterization of human T cell receptors (TCRs) with specificity for synovial sarcoma X breakpoint 2 (SSX2), a cancer/testis antigen expressed in melanoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer, among other tumors. We isolated seven HLA-A2 restricted T cell receptors from natural T cell clones derived from tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes of two SSX2-seropositive melanoma patients, and selected four TCRs for cloning into retroviral vectors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) transduced with three of four SSX2 TCRs showed SSX241-49 (KASEKIFYV) peptide specific reactivity, tumor cell recognition and tetramer binding. One of these, TCR-5, exhibited tetramer binding in both CD4 and CD8 cells and was selected for further studies. Antigen-specific and HLA-A*0201-restricted interferon-γ release, cell lysis and lymphocyte proliferation was observed following culture of TCR engineered human PBL with relevant tumor cell lines. Codon optimization was found to increase TCR-5 expression in transduced T cells, and this construct has been selected for development of clinical grade viral vector producing cells. The tumor-specific pattern of expression of SSX2, along with the potent and selective activity of TCR-5, makes this TCR an attractive candidate for potential TCR gene therapy to treat multiple cancer histologies.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93321. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093321 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growing knowledge of the complexities of the immune system have led to a better understanding of how it can be harnessed for the purpose of anticancer therapy. Moreover, recent success with immunotherapies for solid tumors, combined with novel therapeutic strategies against myeloma, heighten excitement at the prospect of improving clinical outcomes for myeloma by improving antitumor immunity. Increased understanding of myeloma tumor-associated antigens, availability of more potent vaccines, expanded immune-modulating therapies, development of agents that block immune-suppressive pathways, increased sophistication of adoptive cell therapy techniques and capitalization upon standard autologous transplant are all important standalone or combination strategies that might ultimately improve prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma.
Immunotherapy 09/2013; 5(9):1005-20. DOI:10.2217/imt.13.97 · 2.07 Impact Factor
Available from: Jan S Moreb
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ABSTRACT: In this prospective phase II clinical trial, multiple myeloma (MM) patients were randomized to receive a second (tandem) autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) based on whether they achieved a partial response or worse (≤PR) following initial ASCT (ASCT1). Patients who achieved a very good partial response or better (≥VGPR) had salvage ASCT at relapse. Seventy-five patients received conditioning therapy and ASCT1. A total of 44 patients (59%) achieved ≥VGPR, whereas 31 patients entered ≤PR and were offered tandem ASCT. In all, 20 patients agreed to tandem ASCT. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the two cohorts except for median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (P = 0.0141) and percentage of marrow plasma cells before ASCT1 (P = 0.0047), both lower in the ≥VGPR group. Intent to treat analysis showed that patients who achieved ≥VGPR to ASCT1 had a trend toward improved progression-free survival (PFS) (37 vs. 26 months, P = 0.078) and superior overall survival (OS) (not reached vs. 50 months, P = 0.0073). Patients with ≤PR who declined tandem transplantation had shortened PFS (20 vs. 28 months, P = 0.05) but similar OS (53 vs. 57.5 months, P = 0.29) compared to those who received it. Thus, a favorable clinical response to ASCT1 identifies a low-risk group with superior long-term prognosis despite similar PFS.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 09/2014; 8:101-5. DOI:10.4137/CMO.S16835
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