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Available from: Frederike Jose Bemelman, Sep 19, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive treatments increase the life-long risk of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients for severe infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. In this review of the literature published during the last 15 months, we critically summarize vaccine-oriented articles in SOT candidates or recipients. Because of previously reported differences, vaccine-specific studies are needed for each type of SOT recipients. Thanks to new data gathered during the H1N1/2009 influenza pandemic, recent research mainly focused on influenza vaccination, especially in kidney transplantation. Lung transplantation, mycophenolate treatment, increasing age and end-stage organ failure were frequently identified as risk factors for nonresponse to immunization in general. New evidence concerning the safety of immunizing SOT recipients with live-attenuated vaccines is obtained. During this last year, more encouraging data have been published regarding safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in SOT recipients. New inventive strategies should be studied to overcome missed opportunities for vaccinating SOT candidates and recipients, and to promote the most effective vaccination schedule and follow-up.
    Current opinion in organ transplantation 07/2013; 18(5). DOI:10.1097/MOT.0b013e3283636c88 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, this infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The role of the complement system in innate immune defenses against invasive meningococcal disease is well established. Individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways are highly predisposed to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections. Genome-wide analysis studies also point to a central role for complement in disease pathogenesis. Here we review the pathophysiologic events pertinent to the complement system that accompany meningococcal sepsis in humans. Meningococci use several, often redundant mechanisms to evade killing by human complement. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition play critical roles in complement evasion. Some of the newly described protein vaccine antigens interact with complement components and have sparked considerable research interest.
    Virulence 10/2013; 5(1). DOI:10.4161/viru.26515 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of eculizumab for patients with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS), compared with current treatment options. A systematic review was performed according to the general principles of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. All study designs were included, except case histories. All patients diagnosed with aHUS were included; no age restrictions were used. Eculizumab compared with current treatment options. 12 databases were searched. Additional searches were performed through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Electronic Medicines Compendium websites, Google internet searches and contacting clinical experts. Reference lists of relevant articles were checked for additional studies. 2 small, uncontrolled prospective multinational, multicentre studies and one small uncontrolled multinational, multicentre retrospective study were included. No meta-analyses were performed. Compared with baseline measures, thrombotic microangiopathy event-free status was achieved in 84% of patients in the prospective studies. Adverse events, as documented by enrolling investigators were frequent, with upper-respiratory tract infection affecting a third of patients. No deaths or episodes of meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia occurred in the prospective studies. Results of the study extension phases up to 114 weeks indicate that the benefits of the treatment are sustained. Eculizumab is clinically effective for the treatment of aHUS. Further research is needed to evaluate eculizumab, ideally using patient-related clinical outcomes. If randomised studies are not feasible, study investigators should ensure that the threat of bias is minimised in future studies of eculizumab with respect to the reporting of patient recruitment and selection.
    BMJ Open 11/2013; 3(11):e003573. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003573 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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