Mycobacterium leprae in Colombia described by SNP7614 in gyrA, two minisatellites and geography.
ABSTRACT New cases of leprosy are still being detected in Colombia after the country declared achievement of the WHO defined 'elimination' status. To study the ecology of leprosy in endemic regions, a combination of geographic and molecular tools were applied for a group of 201 multibacillary patients including six multi-case families from eleven departments. The location (latitude and longitude) of patient residences were mapped. Slit skin smears and/or skin biopsies were collected and DNA was extracted. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis following a multiplex PCR-was developed for rapid and inexpensive strain typing of M. leprae based on copy numbers of two VNTR minisatellite loci 27-5 and 12-5. A SNP (C/T) in gyrA (SNP7614) was mapped by introducing a novel PCR-RFLP into an ongoing drug resistance surveillance effort. Multiple genotypes were detected combining the three molecular markers. The two frequent genotypes in Colombia were the SNP7614(C)/27-5(5)/12-5(4) [C54] predominantly distributed in the Atlantic departments while the SNP7614 (T)/27-5(4)/12-5(5) [T45] was associated with the Andean departments. A novel genotype SNP7614 (C)/27-5(6)/12-5(4) [C64] was detected in cities along the Magdalena river which separates the Andean from Atlantic departments; a subset was further characterized showing association with a rare allele of minisatellite 23-3 and the SNP type 1 of M. leprae. The genotypes within intra-family cases were conserved. Overall, this is the first large scale study that utilized simple and rapid assay formats for identification of major strain types and their distribution in Colombia. It provides the framework for further strain type discrimination and geographic information systems as tools for tracing transmission of leprosy.
SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A recent advance in molecular typing for tracing the transmission of leprosy is the discovery of short tandem repeats (STRs) in Mycobacterium leprae. To substantiate polymorphic loci from STR as promising candidates for molecular typing tools in leprosy epidemiology, 44 STR loci including 33 microsatellites and 11 minisatellites were investigated among 27 laboratory strains by sequencing PCR products. Not all STRs were necessarily polymorphic. Thirty-two out of the 44 loci were polymorphic. Nine polymorphic loci were suitable for identifying genotypes according to the discriminatory capacity, stability, and reproducibility. All the strains were classified into independent genotypes by the selected nine loci. Three multi-case households were subjected to molecular typing. M. leprae obtained from household cases showed identical copy numbers by TTC triplet alone, but the isolates from one family contact case were divided into different genotypes by adding eight other polymorphic loci. The combination of information from multiple loci allows increasing levels of discrimination and it is likely that the generation and documentation of data will result in the choice of a potential molecular typing tool for leprosy epidemiology.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2005; 43(10):5221-9. DOI:10.1128/JCM.43.10.5221-5229.2005 · 4.23 Impact Factor
Article: On the origin of leprosy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Leprosy, a chronic human disease with potentially debilitating neurological consequences, results from infection with Mycobacterium leprae. This unculturable pathogen has undergone extensive reductive evolution, with half of its genome now occupied by pseudogenes. Using comparative genomics, we demonstrated that all extant cases of leprosy are attributable to a single clone whose dissemination worldwide can be retraced from analysis of very rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The disease seems to have originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. Europeans or North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years.Science 06/2005; 308(5724):1040-2. · 31.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.PLoS Genetics 04/2008; 4(3):e1000037. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037 · 8.17 Impact Factor