The Standard Shiftwork Index: A battery of questionnaires for assessing shiftwork-related problems

Work and Stress (Impact Factor: 3). 01/1995; 9:4-30. DOI: 10.1080/02678379508251582

ABSTRACT The lack of standardization in shiftwork research has been recognized. In response, a battery of selfreport questionnaires has been developed, which might usefully be employed in assessing the impact of different types of shift systems on large groups of individuals. The scales included reflect the most pertinent issues within shiftwork research, and were chosen on the basis of being both relatively short, easy to administer, and having good psychometric properties. The scales fall broadly into three main categories: outcomes, relating to the actual problems experienced by the individuals concerned; modifiers, relating to those differences between individuals which may serve to moderate the impact of shiftwork; and general, including work context and shift system details. Suggestions as to how the questionnaires might usefully be employed are offered. Based on the results of a large sample of nurses and midwives, and a second sample of industrial and service workers, the present paper offers: a set of normative data against which comparisons with other shiftworking groups can be made; the identification of the relationships that exist between the outcome and modifier variables; and evidence of the sensitivity of the scales in differentiating between groups of shiftworkers on different types of shift systems.

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    • "A full description of the questionnaire has been presented elsewhere [5] [7]. Demographic characteristics were also recorded, including personal and work characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the burden experienced by nursing personnel working irregular shifts in Greece and to conduct the first test of a Greek version of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI). Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The SSI was completed by 365 nurses and nursing assistants working shifts, including nights. Results Female nursing personnel and those suffering from a chronic disease were most affected by working rotating shifts as they had elevated scores on the majority of the SSI scales, such as sleep, chronic fatigue, digestive and cardiovascular problems, general health questionnaire, cognitive and somatic anxiety, shift time satisfaction, engagement and disengagement strategies, languidity, flexibility, and neurotisicm. Nurses with longer working experience and those with family responsibilities also scored higher on some of the SSI scales, such as the sleep, shift time satisfaction, social and domestic disruption, disengagement strategies, morningness, and languidity scales. Conclusion Shiftwork affects female nurses, those with chronic disease, older age, and domestic responsibilities more severely. Therefore management should take these factors into account when designing work schedules to alleviate the burden caused by shiftwork.
    06/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1016/
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    • "The instrument used for data collection is Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI; Barton et al., 1995). The SSI questionnaire is based on existing knowledge of the problems associated with working shifts and measures variables that are thought to modify an individual's response to shiftwork, such as individual circumstances (age, marital status, and children to look after), personality characteristics (morningness/ eveningness, extraversion/neuroticism, rigidity, and vigor), coping strategies and personal outcomes for the individual, including physical and psychological health, sleep disturbance, and social and domestic disruption. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the factors that are associated with sleep disturbance in nursing personnel working irregular shifts. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The Standard Shiftwork Index was used for data collection, which was completed by 365 nurses and nurse assistants working shifts including nights. Female nurses and nurses with elevated levels of chronic fatigue were found with greater sleep disturbance between all shifts. Sleep disturbance between most shifts was greater in participants with more than 18 years of working experience and those having family members to look after. No differences were observed in family status, professional training, or circadian characteristics. Our results suggest that demographics, working characteristics, and family structure are associated with sleep disturbance between shifts in nursing personnel. The modification of shift schedules according to individual needs and preferences is necessary for the reduction of sleeping problems.
    Nursing Forum 01/2013; 48(1):45-53. DOI:10.1111/nuf.12005
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    • "These shift workers were asked to keep only days off or day shifts in mind when completing the questionnaires. Shift workers were also asked to complete the Standard Shift work Index (Barton et al. 1995), which was used to determine the total shift work duration and the shift pattern of their last job. Subjects were free of any medical conditions and medication, including over-the-counter medication, thought to affect cardiovascular, metabolic, gastrointestinal and immune functions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that shift workers are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease which may, in part, be related to metabolic and hormonal changes. Partial sleep deprivation, a common consequence of rotating shift work, has been shown to affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The current study investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation, as a proxy for the first night shift, on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid (triacylglycerols (TAGs) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs)) responses under controlled laboratory conditions in shift workers and non-shift workers. Eleven experienced shift workers (35.7+/-7.2 years, mean+/-s.d.) who had worked in shifts for 8.7+/-5.25 years were matched with 13 non-shift workers who had worked for 32.8+/-6.4 years. After an adaptation night and a baseline sleep night, volunteers were kept awake for 30.5 h, followed by a nap (4 h) and recovery sleep. Blood samples were taken prior to and after a standard breakfast following baseline sleep, total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Basal TAG levels prior to the standard breakfast were significantly lower after sleep deprivation, indicating higher energy expenditure. Basal NEFA levels were significantly lower after recovery sleep. Postprandial insulin and TAG responses were significantly increased, and the NEFA response was decreased after recovery sleep, suggestive of insulin insensitivity. Although there were no overall significant differences between non-shift workers and shift workers, non-shift workers showed significantly higher basal insulin levels, lower basal NEFA levels, and an increased postprandial insulin and a decreased NEFA response after recovery sleep. In future, the reasons for these inter-group differences are to be investigated.
    Journal of Endocrinology 08/2010; 206(2):205-15. DOI:10.1677/JOE-10-0077 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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