The Standard Shiftwork Index: A battery of questionnaires for assessing shiftwork-related problems

Work and Stress (Impact Factor: 3). 01/1995; 9(1):4-30. DOI: 10.1080/02678379508251582


The lack of standardization in shiftwork research has been recognized. In response, a battery of selfreport questionnaires has been developed, which might usefully be employed in assessing the impact of different types of shift systems on large groups of individuals. The scales included reflect the most pertinent issues within shiftwork research, and were chosen on the basis of being both relatively short, easy to administer, and having good psychometric properties. The scales fall broadly into three main categories: outcomes, relating to the actual problems experienced by the individuals concerned; modifiers, relating to those differences between individuals which may serve to moderate the impact of shiftwork; and general, including work context and shift system details. Suggestions as to how the questionnaires might usefully be employed are offered. Based on the results of a large sample of nurses and midwives, and a second sample of industrial and service workers, the present paper offers: a set of normative data against which comparisons with other shiftworking groups can be made; the identification of the relationships that exist between the outcome and modifier variables; and evidence of the sensitivity of the scales in differentiating between groups of shiftworkers on different types of shift systems.

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    • "Sleep disturbance: Four questions and associated sub-questions extracted from the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) (Barton et al., 1995) were used to provide an overall sleep disturbance score. Whereas typically sleep disturbance scores are obtained by summing scores, in this case an average of responses were used, to account for missing data from respondents who did not experience particular variants of shift (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.
    Chronobiology International 09/2014; 31(10):1-11. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.957307 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "A full description of the questionnaire has been presented elsewhere [5] [7]. Demographic characteristics were also recorded, including personal and work characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the burden experienced by nursing personnel working irregular shifts in Greece and to conduct the first test of a Greek version of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI). Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The SSI was completed by 365 nurses and nursing assistants working shifts, including nights. Results Female nursing personnel and those suffering from a chronic disease were most affected by working rotating shifts as they had elevated scores on the majority of the SSI scales, such as sleep, chronic fatigue, digestive and cardiovascular problems, general health questionnaire, cognitive and somatic anxiety, shift time satisfaction, engagement and disengagement strategies, languidity, flexibility, and neurotisicm. Nurses with longer working experience and those with family responsibilities also scored higher on some of the SSI scales, such as the sleep, shift time satisfaction, social and domestic disruption, disengagement strategies, morningness, and languidity scales. Conclusion Shiftwork affects female nurses, those with chronic disease, older age, and domestic responsibilities more severely. Therefore management should take these factors into account when designing work schedules to alleviate the burden caused by shiftwork.
    Safety and Health at Work 06/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1016/
    • "Sleep Questionnaire. Sleep quality was assessed by the German translation of the Sleep Questionnaire (Knauth, unpublished) from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI; Barton et al., 1995 "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems.
    Journal of Biological Rhythms 04/2013; 28(2):141-51. DOI:10.1177/0748730412475042 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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