The Standard Shiftwork Index: A battery of questionnaires for assessing shiftwork-related problems

Work and Stress (Impact Factor: 3). 01/1995; 9:4-30. DOI: 10.1080/02678379508251582

ABSTRACT The lack of standardization in shiftwork research has been recognized. In response, a battery of selfreport questionnaires has been developed, which might usefully be employed in assessing the impact of different types of shift systems on large groups of individuals. The scales included reflect the most pertinent issues within shiftwork research, and were chosen on the basis of being both relatively short, easy to administer, and having good psychometric properties. The scales fall broadly into three main categories: outcomes, relating to the actual problems experienced by the individuals concerned; modifiers, relating to those differences between individuals which may serve to moderate the impact of shiftwork; and general, including work context and shift system details. Suggestions as to how the questionnaires might usefully be employed are offered. Based on the results of a large sample of nurses and midwives, and a second sample of industrial and service workers, the present paper offers: a set of normative data against which comparisons with other shiftworking groups can be made; the identification of the relationships that exist between the outcome and modifier variables; and evidence of the sensitivity of the scales in differentiating between groups of shiftworkers on different types of shift systems.

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    ABSTRACT: We compared two "3 × 8" shift rotas with backward rotation and quick return (morning and night shift in the same day) in a 5- or 6-day shift cycle, and a "2 × 12" shift rota with forward rotation in a 5-d shift cycle. A total of 294 nurses (72.6% women, mean age 33.8) were examined in a survey on work-related stress, including the Standard Shiftwork Index. Ten nurses per each shift roster recorded their activity and rest periods by actigraphy, rated sleepiness and sleep quality, and collected salivary cortisol throughout the whole shift cycle. Nurses engaged in the "2 × 12" rota showed lower levels of sleep disturbances and, according to actigraphy, sleep duration was more balanced and less fragmented than in the "3 × 8" rosters. The counter-clockwise shift rotation and quick return of "3 × 8" schedules reduce possibility of sleep and recovery. The insertion of a morning shift before the day with quick return increases night sleep by about 1 h. Nurses who take a nap during the night shift require 40% less sleep in the morning after. The "2 × 12" clockwise roster, in spite of 50% increased length of shift, allows a better recovery and more satisfying leisure times, thanks to longer intervals between work periods. Sleepiness increased more during the night than day shifts in all rosters, but without significant difference between 8-h and 12-h rosters. However, the significantly higher level at the start of the night shift in the "3 × 8" rotas points out that the fast backward rotation with quick return puts the subjects in less efficient operational conditions. Some personal characteristics, such as morningness, lability to overcome drowsiness, flexibility of sleeping habits and age were significantly associated to sleep disturbances in nurses engaged in the "3 × 8" rotas, but not in the "2 × 12" schedule.
    Chronobiology international. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Conflict of Interest: The authors declare they have no conflict of interest in relation to any aspect of this manuscript. OBJECTIVE. The aim of the present study was to explore the factors that are associated with sleep disturbance in nursing personnel working irregular shifts. METHODS. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The Standard Shift-work Index was used for data collection, which was completed by 365 nurses and nurse assistants working shifts including nights. RESULTS. Female nurses and nurses with elevated levels of chronic fatigue were found with greater sleep disturbance between all shifts. Sleep disturbance between most shifts was greater in participants with more than 18 years of working experience and those having family members to look after. No differences were observed in family status, professional training, or circadian characteristics. CONCLUSION. Our results suggest that demographics, working charac-teristics, and family structure are associated with sleep disturbance between shifts in nursing personnel. The modification of shift schedules according to individual needs and preferences is necessary for the reduc-tion of sleeping problems.
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    ABSTRACT: Besides health and physical symptoms, shift work can lead to social and personal problems. Family duties and leisure activities are usually part of evening and weekend life. Working night shifts or frequently changing shifts or working at the weekends can lead to additional stress because spare-time activities have to be coordinated with the work plan. It can also be stressful for the family to have to adapt its activities to the shift plan of the working family member. This can result in a diminution of quality of life, problems in partnerships, and – in the worst case – to social isolation. This paper explores the complex relationships between social and personal life of an employee and the shift work practices.


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May 28, 2014