Human anaerobic intestinal "rope" parasites
ABSTRACT Human intestinal helminths are described in this paper. They can be over a
meter long, with an irregular cylindrical shape, resembling a rope. These
anaerobic intestinal "rope" parasites differ significantly from other
well-known intestinal parasites. Rope parasites can leave human body with
enemas, and are often mistaken for intestinal lining, feces, or decayed remains
of other parasites. Rope parasites can attach to intestinal walls with suction
bubbles, which later develop into suction heads. Walls of the rope parasites
consist of scale-like cells forming multiple branched channels along the
parasite's length. Rope parasites can move by jet propulsion, passing gas
bubbles through these channels. Currently known antihelminthic methods include
special enemas. Most humans are likely hosting these helminths.
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ABSTRACT: The title of a 1930s article asked the question, "Stupidity or Hookworm?" In this article, the authors discuss research that attempts to answer the question of whether intestinal worms--namely, hookworm, whipworm, and roundworm--harm the mental performance of their hosts. After introducing the biology and epidemiology of intestinal worms, the authors present the historical background to the problem. They review research from the 1910s through the 1990s; there is evidence that high intensities of worms can affect mental performance, but not all dewormed children show improved performance. They discuss the mechanisms of how worms might affect the mind.Psychological Bulletin 04/1997; 121(2):171-91. · 15.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Giardia is a protozoan parasite of the small intestine, and a leading cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide in a variety of animals, including humans. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of giardiasis remain incompletely understood. Current research suggests that Giardia-induced diarrhoeal disease is mediated by small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion, chloride hypersecretion and increased rates of small intestinal transit. Small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion results from the CD8+ lymphocyte-induced diffuse shortening of brush border microvilli. Activation of CD8+ lymphocytes occurs secondary to small intestinal barrier dysfunction, which results from heightened rates of enterocyte apoptosis and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Both host and parasite factors contribute to the pathogenesis of giardiasis and ongoing research in this field may elucidate genotype/assemblage-specific pathogenic mechanisms. Giardia infections can result in chronic gastrointestinal disorders such as post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome and symptoms may manifest at extra-intestinal sites, even though the parasite does not disseminate beyond the gastrointestinal tract. The infection can cause failure to thrive in children. Furthermore, there is now evidence suggesting that Giardia symptoms may vary between industrialised and developing areas of the world, for reasons that remain obscure. More research is needed to improve our understanding of this parasitic infection which was recently included in the World Health Organisation "Neglected Disease Initiative".International journal for parasitology 05/2011; 41(9):925-33. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5-10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90-95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25-30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30-35% are linked to diet, about 15-20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes.Pharmaceutical Research 08/2008; 25(9):2097-116. · 4.74 Impact Factor
Human anaerobic intestinal “rope” parasites
Submitted to arxiv.org on Jan. 5, 2013, http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0953
Alex A. Volinsky a*, Nikolai V. Gubarev b, Galina M. Orlovskaya c, Elena V.
a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa FL
b Occupational Safety Ltd. (OOO “Bezopasnost Truda”), 32 Koli Tomchaka St., suite
14, St. Petersburg 196084, Russia
c Department of Surgery, St. Petersburg City Hospital No. 15, 4 Avangard St., St.
Petersburg 198205, Russia
d Currently no affiliation, Formerly research volunteer at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center
and Research Institute, 12902 USF Magnolia Drive, Tampa FL 33612, USA
* Corresponding author. Phone: +1 813 974 5658, Fax: +1 813 974 3539
Human intestinal helminths are described in this paper. They can be over a meter
long, with an irregular cylindrical shape, resembling a rope. These anaerobic intestinal
“rope” parasites differ significantly from other well-known intestinal parasites. Rope
parasites can leave human body with enemas, and are often mistaken for intestinal
lining, feces, or decayed remains of other parasites. Rope parasites can attach to
intestinal walls with suction bubbles, which later develop into suction heads. Walls of
the rope parasites consist of scale-like cells forming multiple branched channels along
the parasite’s length. Rope parasites can move by jet propulsion, passing gas bubbles
through these channels. Currently known antihelminthic methods include special
enemas. Most humans are likely hosting these helminths.
Keywords: Human parasite; Intestinal parasite; Anaerobic parasite; Helminths; Rope
parasite; New taxa.
More than one billion humans are infected with intestinal parasites.1 Over 15%
of all cancers in humans are parasites-related.2 It is also estimated that every fourth
human is infected with intestinal parasites.3 Parasitic worms fall under one of the four
categories: roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes), and
This communication describes human anaerobic intestinal parasites that have not
been previously mentioned in the literature. In humans they can cause multiple
symptoms, including weight gain or loss, food allergies, common colds, coughing, back
pain, rashes, headaches, indigestion, hair loss, etc. Discovered anaerobic intestinal
parasites differ significantly from the well-known and studied intestinal parasites.
Unlike others, these parasites do not have muscles, nervous system, or distinct
reproductive organs, etc., and dry out quickly when exposed to air. The main reason
these parasites have not been previously discovered by the researchers, is because they
rarely come out as whole fully developed adult species. They also look like human
excrements (Fig. 1(a)), and don’t move outside the human body in air. These parasites
are often mistaken for decaying remains of other parasites, feces, or lining of the
intestines, as their colour varies from white to brown, to dark grey. Fig. 1(b) shows over
a meter long adult intestinal parasites, which resembles a rope. Thus, the adult stage of
these parasites is named “rope” parasites. Rope parasites can leave human body with
special enemas,5-8 which is how they have been discovered.
Fig. 1. (a) Anaerobic human intestinal “rope” parasite; (b) Fully developed adult
intestinal parasite with the suction head; (c) Close-up view of the suction cup head.
Adult rope parasites have an un-segmented irregular cylindrical shape. Parasites’
tegument is slimy and tacky. Once washed with water from feces, rope parasites
produce a very strong distinct scent. Microscopic observations of the adult parasite
structure are presented in Fig. 2. Fig. 2(a) is an optical micrograph of the parasite’s wall,
which has multiple branching channels, 50-150 µm wide. The walls are formed by
multiple scale-like cells, 10-20 µm in size, clearly seen in Fig. 2(a) and (b). When water
was injected into the channel, it travelled along the length of the parasite, observed
under the optical microscope, without carrying any surrounding cells. There was also
some particles motion in the channels, observed under the optical microscope. Unlike
nematodes, which have the main body cavity, rope parasites have a branching network
of channels along their length (Fig. 2(a). Thus, unlike other nematodes, they have no
single apparent digestive tube. Similar to some nematodes, rope parasites attach to the
internal wall of the intestine using suction cups positioned at the head (Fig. 1(c)), or
even along their body (Fig. 1(a)). At the same time, these parasites don’t have a cuticle,
like nematodes, but a tegument, like cestodes. This tegument is slimy and gel-like in
consistency. Rope parasites are most likely hermaphroditic, as no reproductive organs
were found by either microscopic or macroscopic observations. They have no
intermediate host and no apparent larval stages.
Fig. 2(c) shows almost perfect spherical objects, 35-40 µm in diameter found
inside the channels. Larger magnification image of this feature is shown in Fig. 2(d).
Such spheres were observed inside the two parasites from two hosts subjected to
microscopic examination. While at this point it’s not clear what these spherical objects
inside the channels are, it is quite possible that they are simply gas bubbles. Fig. 2(e)
shows slime originating from the early stages of the rope parasite development. Notice
blunt droplet ends, which later develop into attachment suction cups. Fig. 2(f) shows
rope parasite placed in water. Originally they were laying down on the bottom of the
glass jar. But later, rope parasites developed much larger gas bubbles, attempting to
reach water surface, defying gravity. This behaviour points to their motion and
attachment mechanisms. It is quite possible that parasites combined smaller bubbles in
Fig. 2(d) into larger bubbles seen in Fig. 2(f). Rope parasites can also emit gas and
move by jet propulsion. This process is manifested in humans by flatulence and
stomach bloating during or after enemas. Rope parasites utilize osmotic feeding, as food
remains were observed inside them, determining their colour, as in Fig. 1(a) for
example. In the intestines adult parasites expand, while twisting like a corkscrew, or a
mop, capturing fecal content and extracting nutrients, which produces dry twisted feces.
By doing this, rope parasites can completely block the lumen of the intestine. Feeding
and excretory functions are conducted through their whole body surface. Two possible
reproductive routes through gemmation and slime produced by the rope parasites can be
A legitimate question how these parasites can stay inside the human intestinal
tract without being carried out by peristaltic movements with excrements arises. First,
rope parasites attach to intestinal walls with suction cups. Second, they are quite long,
reaching over a meter in length, exceeding a typical length of the fecal contents. Third,
they move by emitting bubbles seen in Fig. 2(c), utilizing jet propulsion. Fourth, they
twist like a mop, expanding in cross-section, completely blocking the lumen of the
intestine. Fifth, they develop gas bubbles, as in Fig. 2(f), which later become suction
heads, as in Fig. 1(c). These mechanisms allow rope parasites to resist peristaltic waves,
which only travel a few centimetres per second. Rope parasites also bypass human
immune system and participate in the digestion process by consuming fecal contents,
striping humans of vital nutrients, and generating toxins as their own waste in return.
They are most active during the night time.8 The exact mechanisms are yet to be
discovered and studied.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical micrograph of the rope parasite wall structure showing scale cells and
microchannels. Unstained sample; (b) Higher magnification optical image of the
parasite wall; (c) Spheres inside the channel cavity; (d) Higher magnification image of a
sphere inside the rope parasite channel cavity; (e) Slime initial stages of the rope
parasite’ development coming from the colander holes; (f) Rope parasite in water
generating gas bubbles rising to the surface.
40 µ µ µ µm
12 µ µ µ µm
12 µ µ µ µm
90 µ µ µ µm
Many people observe rope parasites in their stool during fasting or enemas, with
numerous pictures posted in corresponding internet forums worldwide. Often the rope
parasites are mistaken for the remains of other decayed parasites, such as ascaris worms,
or the intestinal lining. It is quite possible that fully developed rope parasites can feed
on blood, as some of them came out after enemas with their head covered with fresh
human blood. People with alkaline blood reaction (blood pH of 8-10) had the worst
parasitic invasions, most likely due to chronic constipation caused by intestinal
dysbacteriosis, which rope parasites contribute to significantly. An easy way to
determine if blood has alkaline reaction is based on the eye conjunctiva colour behind
the eyelid. Bright pink conjunctiva colour signifies normal blood pH, while bright red
colour corresponds to alkaline blood, and pale conjunctiva corresponds to acidic blood.
Similar to Giardia,9 rope parasites release toxins in the intestinal tract, and the blood
stream, suppressing immune system and causing multiple symptoms in humans. Once
an adult parasite is attached to the intestinal wall, human body does not have
mechanisms to get rid of it. Rope parasite tegument releases a special slimy acrid
substance with a distinct smell. This substance helps parasites attach to the lining of the
intestines and protects them from proteolytic enzymes. It is quite possible that this slime
protects the parasites from human body immunological response. This slime release is
seasonal, and it can travel up the intestinal tract, reaching lungs and airways. One can
only imagine how many microelements, vitamins and enzymes the human body is
stripped off to sustain this parasitic biomass. Human body starts to lack essential
nutrients, which leads to higher food consumption, resulting in obesity. These helminths
themselves also contribute to the excess body weight.
While currently there’s no known pharmaceutical antihelminthics cure for the
rope parasites, dehilminthation methods include cleaning water enemas, followed by
enema with baking soda,5,8 eucalyptus oil followed by the lemon juice enema,6,7,8 and
milk enemas with salt.8 Most humans are hosting these parasites without even knowing
it,8 as hundreds of patients had these parasites. So far there has not been a single patient
that didn’t have these parasites. The rope parasite’s full life cycle and interactions with
the human body are yet to be studied and fully understood.
In conclusion, human anaerobic intestinal parasites, named “rope” parasites,
have been described. They feed osmotically on semi-digested food remains in the
intestines, and move by utilizing jet propulsion by releasing gas bubbles. Rope parasites
attach to the intestinal wall and cause multiple symptoms. Rope parasites can leave the
human body with enemas.
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lifestyle changes. Pharm Res 2008;25(9):2097-2116.
3. Watkins WE, Pollitt E. 'Stupidity or worms': Do intestinal worms impair mental
performance?. Psychological Bull 1997;121(2):171-91.
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2006. Method of human dehilminthation/Sposob izgnaniya gelmintov iz
organizma cheloveka, Russian Federation Patent RU (11) 228110.
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Pakulina ON. 2007. Method of human dehilminthation/Sposob izgnaniya
gelmintov iz organizma cheloveka, Russian Federation Patent RU2270688.
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human dehilminthation/Sposob izgnaniya gelmintov iz organizma cheloveka,
Russian Federation Patent RU2250111
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i…neizvestnye, Special Literature, First Class Publishing, St. Petersburg (In
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