Strategic nonmyeloablative conditioning: CD154:CD40 costimulatory blockade at primary bone marrow transplantation promotes engraftment for secondary bone marrow transplantation after engraftment failure.

Institute for Cellular Therapeutics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 12/2008; 181(9):6616-24. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.181.9.6616
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is an increased risk of failure of engraftment following nonmyeloablative conditioning. Sensitization resulting from failed bone marrow transplantation (BMT) remains a major challenge for secondary BMT. Approaches to allow successful retransplantation would have significant benefits for BMT candidates living with chronic diseases. We used a mouse model to investigate the effect of preparative regimens at primary BMT on outcome for secondary BMT. We found that conditioning with TBI or recipient T cell lymphodepletion at primary BMT did not promote successful secondary BMT. In striking contrast, successful secondary BMT could be achieved in mice conditioned with anti-CD154 costimulatory molecule blockade at first BMT. Blockade of CD154 alone or combined with T cell depletion inhibits generation of the humoral immune response after primary BMT, as evidenced by abrogation of production of anti-donor Abs. The humoral barrier is dominant in sensitization resulting from failed BMT, because almost all CFSE-labeled donor cells were killed at 0.5 and 3 h in sensitized recipients in in vivo cytotoxicity assay, reflecting Ab-mediated cytotoxicity. CD154:CD40 costimulatory blockade used at primary BMT promotes allogeneic engraftment in secondary BMT after engraftment failure at first BMT. The prevention of generation of anti-donor Abs at primary BMT is critical for successful secondary BMT.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We show for the first time that signaling through the TLR4/TRIF pathway plays a critical role in allogeneic bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection. This appears to be unique to BMC as organ allografts are rejected mainly via MyD88 signaling. Using T or T/B cell-deficient mice, we found that BMC allorejection occurred early before T cell activation and was T and B cell-independent, suggesting an effector role for innate immune cells in BMC rejection. We further demonstrated the innate immune signaling in BMC allorejection by showing superior engraftment in mice deficient in TRIF or TLR4 but not MyD88 or TLR3. The restored cytotoxicity in TRIF deficient recipients transferred with wildtype F4/80⁺ or NK1.1⁺ cells suggests TRIF signaling dependence on macrophages or NK cells in early BMC rejection. Production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TRIF relevant chemokine MCP-1 was significantly increased early after bone marrow transplantation. In vivo specific depletion of macrophages or NK innate immune cells in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin resulted in additive-enhanced allogeneic engraftment. The requirement for irradiation was completely eliminated when both macrophages and NK cells were depleted in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin to target T and B cells, supporting the hypothesis that two barriers involving innate and adaptive immunity exist in mediating rejection of allogeneic BMC. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for innate immunity in BMC allorejection via signaling through a unique MyD88-independent TLR4/TRIF mechanism. These findings may have direct clinical impact on strategies for conditioning recipients for stem cell transplantation.
    Cell Transplantation 11/2012; 22(12). DOI:10.3727/096368912X658881 · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of chimerism is an undesirable outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after reduced-intensity conditioning. Understanding the nature of cellular and humoral immune responses to HCT after graft loss could lead to improved retransplantation strategies. We investigated the immunologic responses after graft loss in miniature swine recipients of haploidentical HCT that received reduced-intensity conditioning. After the loss of peripheral blood chimerism, antidonor cellular responses were present without detectable antidonor antibody. Reexposure to donor hematopoietic cells after graft loss induced a sensitized antidonor cellular response. No induced antidonor antibody response could be detected despite evidence of cellular sensitization to donor cells. In contrast, unconditioned animals exposed repeatedly to similar doses of haploidentical donor cells developed antidonor antibody responses. These results could have important implications for the design of treatment strategies to overcome antidonor responses in HCT and improve the outcome of retransplantation after graft loss.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 08/2012; 18(11):1629-37. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.08.004 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mixed chimerism is an effective approach for tolerance induction in transplantation. Strategies to achieve mixed chimerism with relatively low toxicity have significantly expanded the clinical use of chimerism. Allogeneic bone marrow transplants were performed between B6 (H2(b)) and BALB/c (H2(d)) mice. Recipient B6 mice were nonmyeloablatively conditioned with anti-αβ-T-cell receptor, anti-CD154, or rapamycin alone or in different combinations. A total of 15 × 10(6) BALB/c bone marrow cells were transplanted after varying doses of cGy of total body irradiation. Pretreatment of recipients with anti-CD154 and rapamycin with or without T-cell lymphodepletion reduced the total body irradiation requirement to 100 cGy for establishing stable mixed chimerism. The mixed chimeras accepted donor islet allografts long term. Lymphocytes from mixed chimeras did not respond to host or donor antigens, yet were reactive to major histocompatibility complex-disparate third-party alloantigens, demonstrating functional donor-specific T-cell tolerance. No antibodies against donor and host were detected in mixed chimeras, suggesting humoral tolerance. Mixed chimeras showed no cytotoxicity to donor cells, but a similar rapid killing rate for major histocompatibility complex disparate third-party B10.BR cells compared with T-cell-deficient and wild-type controls in in vivo cytotoxicity assays, suggesting donor-specific tolerance in the innate immune cells was achieved in mixed chimeras. Mixed chimeras prepared with low-intensity nonmyeloablative conditioning exhibit systemic tolerance in innate immunity and tolerance in adaptive T- and B-cell immune responses.
    Transplantation 03/2012; 93(5):469-76. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e318242bddf · 3.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014