To assess the role claudin-5, an endothelial cell (EC) tight junction protein, plays in establishing basal permeability levels in humans by comparing claudin-5 expression levels in situ and analyzing junctional organization and function in 2 widely used models of cultured ECs, namely human dermal microvascular (HDM)ECs and human umbilical vein (HUV)ECs.
Methods and results:
By immunofluorescence microscopy, ECs more highly express claudin-5 (but equivalently express vascular endothelial-cadherin) in human dermal capillaries versus postcapillary venules and in umbilical and coronary arteries versus veins, correlating with known segmental differences in tight junction frequencies and permeability barriers. Postconfluent cultured HDMECs express more claudin-5 (but equivalent vascular endothelial-cadherin) and show higher transendothelial electric resistance and lower macromolecular flux than similarly cultured HUVECs. HDMEC junctions are more complex by transmission electron microscopy and show more continuous claudin-5 immunofluorescence than HUVEC junctions. Calcium chelation or dominant negative vascular endothelial-cadherin overexpression decreases transendothelial electric resistance and disrupts junctions in HUVECs, but not in HDMECs. Claudin-5 overexpression in HUVECs fails to increase transendothelial electric resistance or claudin-5 continuity, whereas claudin-5 knockdown in HDMECs, but not in HUVECs, reduces transendothelial electric resistance and increases antibody accessibility to junctional proteins.
Claudin-5 expression and junctional organization control HDMEC and arteriolar-capillary paracellular barriers, whereas HUVEC and venular junctions use vascular endothelial-cadherin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adherens junctions have an important role in the control of vascular permeability. These structures are located at cell-to-cell contacts, mediate cell adhesion and transfer intracellular signals. Adhesion is mediated by cadherins, which interact homophilically in trans and form lateral interactions in cis. VE-cadherin (also known as CDH5 and CD144) is the major component of endothelial adherens junctions and is specific to endothelial cells. Endothelial cells from different types of vessels, such as lymphatic vessels, arteries and veins, show differences in junction composition and organization. Vascular permeability is increased by modifications in the expression and function of adherens junction components. In some cases these defects might be cause of pathology. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we present the example of the so-called cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), where adherens junctions are dismantled in the vessels contributing to brain microcirculation. This causes the loss of endothelial cell apical-basal polarity and the formation of cavernomas, which are fragile and hemorrhagic. Other diseases are accompanied by persistent alterations of vascular morphology and permeability, such as seen in tumors. It will be important to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between vascular fragility, malformations and junctional integrity in order to develop more effective therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelial barrier strictly maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic exchanges throughout organs. Consequently, alteration of this finely tuned function may have devastating consequences for the organism. This is particularly obvious in cancers, where a disorganized and leaky blood vessel network irrigates solid tumors. In this context, vascular permeability drives tumor-induced angiogenesis, blood flow disturbances, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tumor cell extravasation. This can directly restrain the efficacy of conventional therapies by limiting intravenous drug delivery. Indeed, for more effective anti-angiogenic therapies, it is now accepted that not only should excessive angiogenesis be alleviated, but also that the tumor vasculature needs to be normalized. Recovery of normal state vasculature requires diminishing hyperpermeability, increasing pericyte coverage, and restoring the basement membrane, to subsequently reduce hypoxia, and interstitial fluid pressure. In this review, we will introduce how vascular permeability accompanies tumor progression and, as a collateral damage, impacts on efficient drug delivery. The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-driven vascular permeability will next be detailed, with a particular focus on the main factors produced by tumor cells, especially the emblematic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, new perspectives in cancer therapy will be presented, centered on the use of anti-permeability factors and normalization agents.
Frontiers in Oncology 08/2013; 3:211. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00211
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