Article

Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA and McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 01/2013; 339(6121). DOI: 10.1126/science.1231143
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate
RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases
can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also
be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple
guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian
genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.

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