Diagnostic strategies to investigate cerebrospinal fluid involvement in haematological malignancies
ABSTRACT Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a fatal complication of certain haematological malignancies with an incidence as high as 25% in specific leukaemia/lymphoma subtypes. It is often accompanied by 'occult' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement at diagnosis, which is frequently missed by conventional cytology examination. Unfortunately, a diagnostic gold standard is yet unavailable since CSF morphology may be negative for malignant cells in up to 45% of patients with suspected meningeal involvement. New technologies such as flow cytometry, molecular genetics and newer biomarkers may improve sensitivity and specificity facilitating the diagnosis of CNS involvement as well as effective prophylaxis and successful treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Bing-Neel syndrome (BNS), a rare neurological syndrome associated with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), is a direct involvement of the central nervous system by lymphoplasmacytoid cells characterized with an adverse prognostic. The MYD88 L265P mutation has been identified in the vast majority of patients with WM. The diagnosis of BNS is often challenging because of the variety of clinical presentations associated with difficult histological techniques. We hypothesized that identification of MYD88 L265P mutation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would contribute to the diagnosis of BNS in addition to imaging, flow cytometry and cytology. We identified MYD88 L265P mutation in the CSF and the bone marrow of all cases of BNS using quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR and Sanger sequencing. Copy neutral loss of heterozygosity including MYD88 was observed in one case. No mutation of CXCR4, CD79A and CD79B was observed in parallel. We further showed that monitoring the quantitative expression of MYD88 L265P mutation might be a useful molecular tool to monitor response to chemotherapy using qPCR. In conclusion, identification of MYD88 L265P mutation might be a new molecular-based biomarker tool to add to the diagnostic and monitoring armamentarium for BNS.British Journal of Haematology 08/2014; 167(4). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13078 · 4.94 Impact Factor
British Journal of Haematology 02/2014; 164(3):462-4. DOI:10.1111/bjh.12646 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a major complication of haematological and solid tumors with an incidence that ranges from 10% in solid malignances up to 25% in specific leukaemia or lymphoma subtypes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) patterns are unspecific. Though CSF cytology has a high specificity (up to 95%), its sensitivity is generally less than 50% and no diagnostic gold standard marker is available, yet. New technologies such as flow cytometry, molecular genetics and newer biomarkers may improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, leading to the CNS involvement diagnosis, and consequently, to an effective prophylaxis and successful treatment.Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 09/2013; 71(9B):677-80. DOI:10.1590/0004-282X20130149 · 0.55 Impact Factor