A combination of molecular and stable isotope analyses was used to trace and identify the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments of Lake Bled (NW Slovenia). Sediment samples were taken from two locations with contrasting depositional regimes: Zaka Bay, with permanently oxic bottom and station D, where anoxic conditions prevail throughout the year. The concentrations of PAH in surface sediments at the two locations were comparable and higher than in previous studies, reaching 4,230 and 4,380 ng g 1, respectively. It was found that Reten (Re) and Perylene (Per) are both mainly of natural origin in Zaka Bay while, at station D, the value of 13C determined at a depth of 12-14 cm in the 1950s indicated that Re was of pyrolytic origin. The distribution of 13C values of other individual PAH showed that PAH input to lake sediments was of pyrolytic origin, likely dominated by coal and later in 1950s also by wood burning. PAH from vehicular emissions could also contribute to the overall isotope signatures at the depth of 12-14 cm at station D and Zaka Bay corresponding to the period 1953-1961.
"However, due to difficulties in continuous metals monitoring with actual on-site sampling, especially in a wide range, there is an urgent need for suitable techniques and methods to identify the environmental behavior of metals, and to forecast their migration and distribution trends at a regional scale (Sadler et al., 2011). In order to meet the need of understanding metal pollution patterns and migration processes at the regional and landscape scale, new technologies , such as environmental modeling, GIS technology, and isotope tracing tools are increasingly being applied (Hoefs, 2009; Halder et al., 2013; Petrisic et al., 2013). For example, "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. The aim of sustainable management of the agro-ecosystem includes ensuring that water continues to fulfill its function in agricultural production, cycling of elements, and as a habitat of numerous organisms. There is no doubt that the influence of large-scale irrigation projects has impacted the regional surface-groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given these concerns, the aim of this study is to evaluate the pollution, identify the sources of trace metals, analyze the influence of surface-groundwater interactions on trace metal distribution, and to propose urgent management strategies for trace metals in the agriculture area in China. Trace metals, hydrochemical indicators (EC, pH, concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO3(-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. Trace metals were detected in all samples. Concentrations of Fe, Se, B, Mn, and Zn in SW exceeded drinking water standards by 14.8%, 29.6%, 25.9%, 11.1%, and 14.8% higher, respectively, and by 3.8%, 23.1%, 11.5%, 11.5%, and 7.7% in GW. The pollution of trace metals in surface water was more serious than that in groundwater, and was also higher than in common irrigation areas in NCP. Trace metals were found to have a combined origin of geogenic and agriculture and industrial activities. Their distribution varied greatly and exhibited a certain relationship with the water flow direction, with the exception of a number of singular sites. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidence indicates surface-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of trace metal in the study area. Facing the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring net to warn of increased risk are urgently needed.
Science of The Total Environment 12/2013; 472C:979-988. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.120 · 4.10 Impact Factor
"The PAH concentrations of some compounds increased drastically from 1906 to 2009. Sediment core samples collected by Petrišič et al. (2013) from Lake Bled (Zaka Bay and Station D) were analyzed using the stable carbon isotope technique. The d 13 C value indicated that PAH inputs to the lake sediments were of pyrogenic origin (e.g., coal combustion and wood burning). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analyses of sediment core samples are primary sources of historical pollution trends in aquatic systems. Determining organic compounds, such as POPs, in the dated sediments enables the estimation of their temporal concentration changes and the identification of the contaminant origin in local regions. Wars, large-scale fires, economical transitions, and bans on certain chemicals are reflected in the sediment organic compound concentrations. The high POP concentrations in surficial sediments suggest that these chemicals, even after being banned, remain in the environment. Furthermore, vertical profiles can help in understanding the sedimentation process and in estimating effective countermeasures against pollution. Moreover, studies published during the period 1991-2013 on PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, dioxins and dioxin-like compound concentrations in sediment core samples are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter.
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